Question Description

In 250 words, please respond to the following questions with your perspective based on what you learned this week based on the assigned readings. 1) What are the advantages when a student uses a graphic organizer? Include an example of a student using a graphic organizer.Peer Response 1Chris What are the advantages when a student uses a graphic organizer?> For me the main advantage for using graphic organizers is that it puts framework on student learning and clear communication is achieved. They aid the visual learners and allows for the student to have a clearer understanding of what is to be the main focus of the lesson. I try to provide all students with graphic organizers and not just the students that have an IEP. As teachers, we have the ability to alter and adjust how much of the graphic organizer we would like to provide. In other words, we can start by providing a large chunk of information and gradually reduce the amount that we provide and have the students learn to figure it out for themselves. Many goals for high school students is to graduate and attend college. While in college they will need to learn to figure things out and ask questions. Include an example of a student using a graphic organizer. They also need to learn to communicate. I always tell people that the biggest thing that I learned in college is time management and how to take responsibility for my own learning. One of my students, let’s call her Amy, asks me to provide graphic organizers the day before class so she can review it and know what she needs to focus on during my lecture. By doing this, she knows what to focus on in class and can have questions ready for clarification. Since Amy requested this, I began providing students with graphic organizers the day before class. That way, they can have a starting point for their learning. This experiment has yielded excellent results. Another advantage of conducting class in this format is that you don’t have to plan special assignments for the students that may have this component in their IEP. Peer Response 2MaryGraphic organizers are visual learning strategies that show related information in an organized way. As presented in the powerpoint, graphic organizers connect content in a meaningful way to help students gain a clearer understanding of the material (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, as cited in Baxendrall, 2003). The information students are learning can be presented as a chart, grid, outline, map, hierarchy or Venn diagram for example. When information is presented in an organized and visual way it is easier for some students to learn and remember new information. These visual aids help students see patterns and connections between the information. Graphic organizers are also useful for taking notes and creating a study guide.An example of a student using a graphic organizer would be the use of a grid with columns to show the relationship between 10 different countries in Europe. The grid could be comprised of 10 boxes down and 4 boxes across. The first column could list 10 of the largest countries in Europe. The second column could include the total population of each country. The third column could list the predominately spoken language and the fourth column could tell the most abundant natural resource. When the information is presented in this way, it is easier to compare and contrast the information about each country. Another example of a student using a graphic organizer is hierarchical diagramming. Hierarchical diagrams are useful for showing superordinate and subordinate information such as a corporate chain of command. The president would be at the top, and under the president would be separate lanes for each department and the ranking of subordinates.

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Instructional Strategies’ Goals
for
All Students
• Learn to value mathematics
• Become confident in their ability to do
mathematics
• Become mathematical problem solvers
• Learn to communicate mathematically
• Learn to reason mathematically
1
Standards:
Content:
• Numbers and
Operations
• Measurement
• Geometry
• Data Analysis and
Probability
• Algebra
Process:
• Problem Solving
• Reasoning and Proof
• Communication
• Connections
• Representation
2
Challenges Students Experience in Math
• Translate word problems into mathematical symbols
(processing)
• Distinguish between patterns or detailed information (visual)
• Describe or paraphrase an explanation (auditory)
• Link the concrete to a representation to the abstract (visual)
• Remember vocabulary and processes (memory)
• Show fluency with basic number operations (memory)
• Maintain focus for a period of time (attention deficit)
• Show written work (reversal of numbers and letters)
3
Therefore, instructional and learning strategies
should address:







Memory
Language and communication
Processing
Self-esteem
Attention
Organizational skills
Math anxiety
4
Instructional Strategy
• Instructional Strategies are methods that can be used
to deliver a variety of content objectives.
• Examples: Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA)
Instruction, Direct Instruction, Differentiated
Instruction, Computer Assisted Instruction
5
Learning Strategy
• Learning Strategies are techniques,
principles, or rules that facilitate the
acquisition, manipulation, integration,
storage, and retrieval of information across
situations and settings (Deshler, Ellis &
Lenz, 1996)
• Examples: Mnemonics, Graphic Organizers,
Study Skills
6
Best Practice in Teaching Strategies
1. Pretest
2. Describe
3. Model
4. Practice
5. Provide Feedback
6. Promote Generalization
7
Effective Strategies for Math
Instruction
Instructional Strategy: Concrete-RepresentationalAbstract (CRA) Instruction
Learning Strategies: Mnemonics
Graphic Organizers
8
Concrete-Representational-Abstract
Instructional Approach (C-R-A)
• CONCRETE: Uses hands-on physical (concrete)
models or manipulatives to represent numbers
and unknowns.
• REPRESENTATIONAL or semi-concrete: Draws or
uses pictorial representations of the models.
• ABSTRACT: Involves numbers as abstract symbols
of pictorial displays.
9
Mnemonics
• A set of strategies designed to help
students improve their memory of new
information.
• Link new information to prior knowledge
through the use of visual and/or acoustic
cues.
10
Why Are Mnemonics Important?
• Mnemonics assist students with acquiring
information in the least amount of time (Lenz,
Ellis & Scanlon, 1996).
• Mnemonics enhance student retention and
learning through the systematic use of
effective teaching variables.
11
DRAW: Letter Strategy
• Discover the sign
• Read the problem
• Answer or draw a
representation of the
problem using lines,
tallies, or checks
• Write the answer and
check
12
DRAW
• D iscover the variable
• R ead the equation, identify operations, and
think about the process to solve the equation.
• A nswer the equation.
• W rite the answer and check the equation.
13
STAR: Letter Strategy
The steps include:
• Search the word problem;
• Translate the words into an equation
in picture form;
• Answer the problem; and
• Review the solution.
14
STAR:
• Search: read the problem carefully, ask
questions, and write down facts.
• Translate: use manipulatives to express the
temperature.
• Answer the problem by using manipulatives.
• Review the solution: reread and check for
reasonableness.
15
Graphic Organizers (GOs)
A graphic organizer is a tool or process to build
word knowledge by relating similarities of
meaning to the definition of a word. This can
relate to any subject—math, history,
literature, etc.
16
Why are Graphic Organizers Important?
• GOs connect content in a meaningful way to help
students gain a clearer understanding of the
material (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, as cited in
Baxendrall, 2003).
• GOs help students maintain the information over
time (Fountas & Pinnell, 2001, as cited in
Baxendrall, 2003).
17
Graphic Organizers:
• Assist students in organizing and retaining
information when used consistently.
• Assist teachers by integrating into instruction
through creative
approaches.
18
Strategies to Teach Graphic Organizers








Framing the lesson
Previewing
Modeling with a think aloud
Guided practice
Independent practice
Check for understanding
Peer mediated instruction
Simplifying the content or structure of the GO
19
Types of Graphic Organizers
• Hierarchical diagramming
• Sequence charts
• Compare and contrast charts
20
A Simple Hierarchical Graphic Organizer example
Geometry
Algebra
MATH
Calculus
Trigonometry
21
Hierarchical Graphic Organizer – example
Algebra
Equations
Inequalities
22
Compare and Contrast – example
Numbers
Illustration/Example
What is it?
6, 17, 25, 100
-3, -8, -4000
Properties/Attributes
Positive Integers
Whole
Numbers
0
Negative Integers
Zero
Fractions
What are some
examples?
What is it like?
23
Venn Diagram – example
Prime Numbers
5
7
11
13
2
3
Even Numbers
Multiples of 3
4
6
8
10
6
9
15
21
24
Multiple Meanings – example
Right
Equiangular
3 sides
3 sides
3 angles
3 angles
1 angle = 90°
3 angles = 60°
TRIANGLES
Acute
Obtuse
3 sides
3 sides
3 angles
3 angles
3 angles < 90° 1 angle > 90°
25
Series of Definitions – example
Word=
Category
Square
=
+
Quadrilateral
Attribute
+
4 equal sides &
4 equal angles (90°)
Definition: A four-sided figure with four equal
sides and four right angles.
27
Four-Square Graphic Organizer – example
1. Word: semicircle
4. Definition
2. Example:
3. Non-example:
A semicircle is half of
a circle.
28
Matching Activity
• Which graphic organizer would be most
suitable for showing these relationships?
• Why did you choose this type?
• Are there alternative choices?
29
Problem Set 1
Parallelogram
Square
Polygon
Irregular polygon
Isosceles Trapezoid
Rhombus
Quadrilateral
Kite
Trapezoid
Rectangle
30
Problem Set 2
Counting Numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .
Whole Numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
Integers: . . . -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. . .
Rationals: 0, …1/10, …1/5, …1/4, … 33, …1/2, …1
Reals: all numbers
Irrationals: π, non-repeating decimal
31
Problem Set 3
Addition
a+b
a plus b
sum of a and b
Multiplication
a times b
axb
a(b)
ab
Subtraction
a–b
a minus b
a less b
Division
a/b
a divided by b
b) a
32
Problem Set 4
Use the following words to organize into
categories and subcategories of
Mathematics:
NUMBERS, OPERATIONS, Postulates, RULE, Triangles,
GEOMETRIC FIGURES, SYMBOLS, corollaries, squares,
rational, prime, Integers, addition, hexagon, irrational,
{1, 2, 3…}, multiplication, composite, m || n, whole,
quadrilateral, subtraction, division.
33
The Rubric for a
Standards-Based Classroom
The Business of the Day is . . .
Instruction . . .
Every
Classroom
will post the
Standard for the Lesson
Goal(s)/ Objective(s)
•High Interest
Books
•Dictionaries
•Books on
CDs/DVDs
•Magazines
Library
In every
Classroom
30 Book Reading Campaign

Kick Off Reading Campaign Date
September 6, 2007
⚫ Posters, Signs, Banners
⚫ Parent Letter


Each student will keep a log to verify with
individual teachers on books read
90 pages or more will justify one
book
⚫ Non-required books
⚫ Non-required stories or articles
⚫ Ideally 7 – 8 books read per advisory
⚫ Book Log

The
Essential
Questions
Data Wall
Word
Wall
ALL CLASSES WILL INCLUDE:
Data Wall
Word Wall

Pretest
– New Words

Benchmarks
– Additional Words

Posttest
The Essential Question
( Posted on a bulletin board or Written on the blackboard)
Essential questions focus on conceptual and factual
understandings to be investigated within the big idea. They
are open-ended and communicate the fundamental and
crucial elements of the content.
Essential questions help students reflect on their learning
before, during, and after classroom instruction so that the
students find themselves working with the big ideas in their
own words. They are meant to engage inquiry and raise
important conceptual or philosophical issues. They should
be shared with the student at the beginning of instruction
and should guide the teacher in the development of
performance tasks.
Essential questions should mostly be “how” or “why” (vs.
“what”). A minimum of four questions should be developed
and listed for standards

Big Ideas:

Big ideas are statements derived from a deep
understanding of the concepts or content; they are
enduring ideas that can apply to more than one area
of study and can be the answer to the essential
questions

Big ideas provide a broad perspective, purpose, and
rationale. They are what we want students to discover
and remember long after instruction ends.

Big ideas should be bulleted, stated clearly and simply,
and in the teacher’s voice. Three or four should be
identified for each standard.
Data Forms
 Pretests
 Benchmarks
 Posttests
 PretestPosttestform
Direct Instructions
Lecture
Seating
Research reports that all Direct Instructions (Lecture)
should only be 10% – 15% of Instructions
Flexible Grouping
Differentiated Instruction
1
2
1. 6 Groups of 4 Desks or 1 Group of 24 desks
2. 2 Groups of 2 Desks or 1 Group of 2 desks by
windows
3. 1 Group of 6 Computers or Pair Share Grouping or
Individual
3
Posted Student Work
Student work posted with a
Rubric
Post student work inside and outside of classroom
•Current (Five weeks or less)
•Assignments and Tests posted must have a RUBRIC
Syllabus

Syllabus workshop
The Clock is Set To Be On Time and Present For
Class!!!  Attendance Record Book



Attendance Log



All students entering a class must sign the
Attendance Book,
After the late bell, teachers will indicate on
the page students signing in are late.
Teacher will keep a student/parent
conference log; Conference with student
Teacher will call student’s home after 3tardies and after 2 absences should make
contact with parent – (i.e. telephone call,
letter); Teachers will submit a list of
students who had two or more absences for
that week to the attendance clerk.
Excused Absence


Verification of excused absences will be
signed by Mr. Lee, Attendance Counselor.
No Signed Note from the Attendance
Counselor – no excused absence(s).
Book Distributions
Tuesday, September 6-7, 2007
 Planning Periods

Teachers
⚫ Office Assistants

Fire Drill and Evacuation Plans
Post
 Review with students
 Refer back to Teacher Handbook
 Handbookstudent

Questions
Yes
No
Rubric
Do you have a rubric for student
assignments/long and short term projects?
11 Yes
Is there a rubric visible for posted student work ?
Do you have a data wall?
Right On Time
For Class
Do you have a library in your room?
Do you have the standard written on the
blackboard related to the current lesson being
taught?
8 – 10 Yes
Tardy to Class
Do you have the essential question (how or why)
posted on a bulletin board or written on the
blackboard?
Do you have flexible groupings for differentiated
instructions?
Does your word wall reflect vocabulary from
current and past lessons?
5-7 Yes
Unexcused
Absence
Is your whole-class lecturing limited to 10% 15% of the instructional period?
Do you have your syllabus ready for the first
week of school?
Is there evidence of technology usage in your
0 -4 Yes
Not Enrolled in
Class
Step Three:
Learning Walks
Allow approximately five minutes to visit each
class, unannounced (faculty knows the week, but not the day or time)
Sit or stand unobtrusively do not interact with the
;
students
Each member conducts three sets of Learning
Walks
 Be sure to visit at all times of day
If not, be sure to visit every grade level and/or
subject area
Utilizes a checklist to record data anonymously
Learning Walks
Data Utilization Meetings
Learning Walks conducted by
Length of classroom visit
Form of feedback
Data collection form
Frequency of Learning Walks
Framework or focus
Principal and teachers
3-5 minutes per classroom
A snapshot of the whole school; anonymous data
Created by local district school teams
Multiple times each semester
Improving student achievement
Designing Effective Homework
Presenter: Debra Pickering
The Homework
Ate My Family
KIDS ARE DAZED,
PARENTS ARE
STRESSED
BY ROMESH RATNESAR
The Case For and Against Homework
Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns
Topics for Recommendations
1. On a day to day basis, how much time should
students spend on homework?
2. What is the role of parents when their children are
working on homework? What should parents do if their
children cannot complete the homework on their own?
3. What do you consider to be the major purpose(s) of
homework?
4. What makes homework effective? What makes
homework ineffective?
5. How did homework impact you as a learner?
The Case For and Against Homework
Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns
stophomework.com
Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns
Headlines
After years of teachers piling it on,
there’s a new movement to …
Abolish homework
(San Francisco Chronicle, October 8,
2006)
Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns
In The Case Against Homework (2006), there is page after
page of heart-wrenching testimonials, such as:
“I had to quit ballet and I don’t get enough sleep
and I don’t have time to read,” says Caroline, a
fifth grader in a Memphis public school who
does seventy to eighty minutes of homework
each night.”
“My first grader would love to participate in our
family’s ‘Game Night’ with her grandparents,
but often can’t because of homework…’
NO TIME TO SOCIALIZE
Children fourteen and under spend an average of only
twenty-five minutes each weekday socializing with family
and friends outside of school, according to a 2004 study
conducted at the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social
Research.
Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns
THE STUDY
“Changing Time for American Youth, 1981-2003
(Juster, Ono, and Stafford, November, 2004).
Studying
49 minutes
Playing
45 minutes
Computer activities
25 minutes
Watching TV
111 minutes
“Skyrocketing” Today Show
6-8 year olds went from 8 minutes a day spent
“studying” to 29 minutes a day in 2003.
That same group spent an average of 103
minutes a day watching TV and engaging in
other passive activities; and, another 74
minutes per day playing.
Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns
From Kohn:
“Most attentive parents can testify that their children
are chronically frustrated by homework—weepy,
stressed out, and fed up…
But only an individual squirreled away in the proverbial
ivory tower could deny—and only someone bereft of
human feelings could minimize the importance of—
the fact that an awful lot of homework is emotionally
trying for an awful lot of children”. (emphasis added)
There is no mention of the data Kohn knows well that
in a national poll of parents,
Percent
Beliefs about homework
64%
About right
25%
Too little
10%
Too much
(as reported in Loveless, 2003)
Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns
Are there valid
concerns?
Topics
• Purpose
• Feedback
• Time
• Parent Involvement
• Accountability
Time
Homework Assignments
Issue: Time
Learning Goal: Increase competency when multiplying
3 digits time 3 digits.
A
Assignment:
Do all of the even numbered problems on page 100-101. Bring your work
to class with you tomorrow morning.
B
Practice this skill tonight by using the problems on page 100-101. Do as
many as you can accurately in 15 minutes tonight. Bring with you those
you were able to do in the 15 minutes.
What are the pro’s and con’s of each approach?
Harris Cooper: 10 minutes x grade level??????
From: “The Case for and Against Homework, Marzano and Pickering,
Educational Leadership
…within their analysis of homework versus no homework studies
Cooper, Robinson, and Patall found studies at grades 2, 3, and 4
demonstrating positive effects for homework
Harris Cooper: 10 minutes x grade level??????
From: “The Case for and Against Homework, Marzano and Pickering,
Educational Leadership
The Cooper (1989a) synthesis reported that for secondary
students the benefit of homework continued up to 1 to 2 hours
per night. After that the benefits decreased.
Similar findings were reported in the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall
(2006) study. Specifically, the authors reported that 7 to 12 hours
(per week) produced the largest effect size. After that the
benefits decreased.
They suggest that for 12th graders the optimum amount of
homework might lie between 1.5 and 2.5 hours per night but
caution that no hard and fast rules are warranted.
Issues and Recommendations
• Time
Key points:
• Time constraints should be identified when assigning homework.
• If students cannot complete the assigned work within the time
constraints, they should have the opportunity to complete the
work in class.
Necessary—sometimes difficult—conversations
When homework is assigned, to what extent am I/are we
confident that students are spending an appropriate
amount of time?
How could we monitor this?
Purpose
Homework Policies
A
Issue: Purpose
You can expect homework each evening, Monday through Thursday.
It is your responsibility to complete the assignments to be prepared
for class the next day.
There often is just not enough time in class for each of you to study
and practice what you are learning. When it seems that there is a
clear need for further individual work beyond what we do in class,
you will have homework.
B
For some learning goals, frequent homework might be assigned; for
others, there might be no need for homework. When there is
homework, it is your responsibility to complete the work and be
prepared for class the next day.
Pros and Cons?
Issues and Recommendations
• Purpose
• Avoid assigning homework simply as a matter of routine.
• Students need to understand the purpose of the homework.
• The purpose of homework should be to enhance the learning of
essential learning goals.
• Homework assignments should be appropriate for the learning
goals that are being addressed.
“Expert teachers…do not report rigidly adhering to regular
homework schedules so much as flexible use of what they view as a
means for furthering collectively defined curricular goals.
…[they] see policies requiring rigid homework schedules as
undermining their ultimate curricular goals…”
(as reported in “Homework is a Complicated Thing”, Lyn Corno)
Issues and Recommendations
• Purpose
• Avoid assigning homework simply as a matter of routine.
• Students need to understand the purpose of the homework.
• The purpose of homework should be to enhance the learning of
essential learning goals.
• Homework assignments should be appropriate for the learning
goals that are being addressed.
Clear Learning Goals?
Examples (adaptations) from The Case Against Homework:
Read Chapter 5 and
• identify who said the following quotes
• find these vocabulary works, circle them, write a definition
• make a timeline of events
Read pages 62-66 in your textbook, and answer the questions at the end.
Read chapters 6-10 in To Kill a Mockingbird.
On a 12 x 12 piece of plywood, nail one-hundred nails (size shown in diagram) at
precise intervals at the same depth. Take six difference colors of embroidery thread and
weave it between the nails in geometric pattern.
Circle all the words on this page that begin with the letter A. Then write …
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Tags:
problem solving

student learning

Graphic organizer

Language and Communication

mathematical problem solvers

Numbers and Operations

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