Question Description

Write a paragraph each on group 2 and group 4 (both quantitative research) responding/reviewing/critique their paper and another paragraph each stating the differences noted compaired to group 1 paper . (compairing differences between group 2 vs group 1, and group 4 vs group 1)I have attached groups1, 2 and 4 paper will be sending the corresponding articles for each group paper Incase you need to look at it)ArticlesGroup 1- The Lived Experience of New Graduate NursesGroup 2 – Emotion and Coping in the Aftermath of Medical Error: A Cross Country ExplorationGroup 4- Bullying among nursing staff: Relationship with psychological/ behavioral response of nurses




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Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
Group 1: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
The lived experience of new graduate nurses working in an acute care setting.
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
Group 1:
Article we are critiquing:
Group 1: “The Lived Experience of New Graduate Nurses Working in an Acute Care
Setting” (Qualitative Article).
Table 4.2 From Textbook: Guide To A Focused Critique of Evidence Quality In A
Qualitative Research Report
Aspect of the Report
Critiquing Questions
Method (Research
design and research
1. Is the identified research tradition (if any) congruent with
the methods used to collect and analyze data?
● The identified research tradition was Descriptive
Phenomenology. In a descriptive phenomenology
study the researcher seeks to portray and depict
“things” as people experience them. These “things”
include hearing, seeing, believing, feeling,
remembering, deciding, and evaluating. The
research question was: What are the lived
experiences of new graduate nurses in their first 12
months in the acute care clinical practice
environment? The research tradition was congruent
with the methods used to collect the data. The
question that was asked seeked to examine the
“things” the new nurses experience in their first
months of working.
2. Was an adequate amount of time spent in the field or with
study participants?
● The study was conducted over the first 12 months
of the new nurses’ work in an acute care clinical
practice environment. This is an adequate amount
of time spent with the study participants as it seems
like it is trying to capture the experience of
“novice” nurses. According to Dr. Patricia Benner’s
theory and book “From Novice To Expert”, the
“novice” phase of a nurse takes place over the first
year of working in a clinical setting. Benner, P. E.
3. Was there evidence of reflexivity in the design?
● According to Polit and Beck “the trustworthiness of
the inquiry is enhanced if the report contains
information about the researchers, including
information about credentials. In addition, the
report may need to make clear the personal
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
connections the researchers had to the people, topic,
or community under study.
● There was no evidence of reflexivity in the design
as it made no connection to the researchers. The
one of the researchers is an instructor at the Jersey
College of Nursing in Tampa Florida. Throughout
the research it only says that the participants are
from a clinical setting in southwest Florida but it
actually says which clinical setting it is and the
connect of the researchers to that clinical setting.
Sample and setting
1. Was the group or population of interest adequately
described? Were the setting and sample described in
sufficient detail?
● Yes, McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015)
adequately describes the group included in the
study, which inclusion criteria is nurses who are in
practice in acute care clinical settings who have
been employed and experienced in the area for 12
months. The exclusion criteria involved nurses who
were licensed practical or vocational nurses, or
those who were licensed via endorsement.
McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) describes
the setting and sample, which included all
participants who were located and employed in
acute care environments within southwest Florida.
2. Was the best possible method of sampling used to enhance
information richness?
● McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) used
purposeful sampling which entails deliberately
choosing the types of participants who will best
contribute to the study. The sampling is purposeful
because McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015)
simply selected people who experienced the
phenomenon being investigated in the study.
Purposeful sampling meant that the participants
were the type of people who could best enhance the
understanding of the phenomenon.
3. Was the sample size adequate? Was saturation achieved?
● Data saturation was achieved since McCallaGraham, & De Gagne, (2015) provided interview
questions which ensured that all the aspects of the
relevant phenomenon were covered. The sample
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
size was sufficient based on the type of study,
descriptive phenomenology, which tends to use a
small sample of participants, only 10 or fewer.
Data collection
1. Were the methods of gathering data appropriate? Were data
gathered through two or more methods to achieve
● The methods of gathering data was appropriate in
that they selected a sample that would provide the
information needed in the study. This was achieved
using exclusion criteria. Anonymity was also
maintained and nursing educators/experts
developed the interview protocols and guidelines.
In-depth interviews were conducted in a qualitative
manner where open-ended questions were asked.
The interviews were also tape recorded to ensure
that all of the information was captured for a
thorough analysis of the data. Data was collected
and interpreted in multiple ways. 11 interview
questions were asked and these questions enabled
sub-questions to be answered. The
phenomenological method of data analysis was
used and information was collected and processed
with the use of two software systems (CAQDAS
and NVivo10). After the data was analyzed by the
researchers, subjects were able to analyze their
results and provide feedback.
2. Did the researcher ask the right questions or make the right
● Researchers were able to ask the right questions in
that they broke down their questions into 3
categories. The questions focused on the
knowledge, skills and environments new graduate
news experienced as they transition from nursing
school and working as a nurse. Researchers
observed a general census in the responses.
3. Was there a sufficient amount of data? Were they of
sufficient depth and richness?
● In this study, there were sufficient amount of data
collected where the researchers observed a general
census in the responses. The open ended general
questions also enabled sub-questions.
1. Do data collection and recording procedures appear
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
● Descriptive phenomenology data was collected for
this qualitative research report and was conducted
appropriately. Phenomenology data consists of indepth interviews and other written forms. The data
collected for new graduate nurses in acute care
setting was done in such a way, that nurses in this
study were all interviewed. The research study
explained that it was studying nurses who had 12
months or less of experience prior to acute care.
● This form of recording was appropriate in this study
because it allowed for an in-depth approach of why
these graduate nurses felt that they would have
benefited from more “worst case scenario” clinical
rotations before entering the acute care field.
2. Were data collected in a manner that minimized bias? Were
the people who collected data appropriately trained?
● The data collected was based off new graduate
nurses in the acute care setting, in Southwest
Florida. There was bias in this study since it was
just based off one city in Florida. The study could
have resulted in less bias if it included different
cities. Also, all the nurses being interviewed, except
one, all had a second career.
● The people who collected the data were
appropriately trained. The approval of this study
was conducted by the university’s institutional
review board. The interviews were conducted
privately for a time of 45-60 minutes each. The data
was recorded and transferred to a computer-based
program in order to provide appropriate analysis.
The participants of the study were allowed to
review the transcript and approve it.
Enhancement of
1. Did the researchers use strategies to enhance the
trustworthiness/integrity of the study, and were those
strategies adequate?
● Integrity in a qualitative research study, the
researcher must reflect and repeatedly check the
validity of the data. In this case, the researcher
reflected on the data provided by the graduate
nurses and used their personal reflection. The
nurses being allowed to review the data, makes the
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
research study trustworthy.
2. Do the researchers’ clinical and methologic qualifications
and experience enhance confidence in the findings and
their interpretation?
● The researchers are both registered nurses with PhD
level education, but they do not elaborate on their
own reflection in the experience of working in an
acute care setting. The researchers are aware that
there is a gap between nursing school education and
acute care bedside nursing. We don’t know if they
were in that same situation post-graduation,
however, their experience being nurses does
enhance their confidence in their findings and
Results (Data analysis)
1. Was the data analysis strategy compatible with the research
tradition and with the nature and type of data gathered?
● The identified research tradition was Descriptive
Phenomenology which is meant to portray and
depict the things people experience. The results
were summarized according to the major topics of
the interview: knowledge, skills, and environment
related to working in an acute care setting as new
graduate nurses. This is compatible with the
research tradition because it captured key “things”
that the new nurses experienced throughout their
first 12 months of working.
2. Did the analysis yield an appropriate “product” (e.g., a
theory, taxonomy, thematic pattern)?
● Yes, the analysis yield an appropriate “product”.
The researchers study brought forth three themes:
1. Knowledge: The general consensus of the
research participants indicated that nursing
school provided basic knowledge for the
neophyte nurses, but it did not actually
prepare them to function effectively in their
first 12 months in the acute care clinical
learning setting.
2. Skills: Many of the participants expressed
that they lacked practical skills to complete
the assignment.
3. Environment: Several participants expressed
that their transition from nursing school to
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
the acute care clinical setting was
3. Did the analytic procedures suggest the possibility of
● The analytic procedures did not suggest the
possibility of biases. In the research it states that the
written descriptions of the new graduate nurse
experiences were broken down into “meaningful
units derived through the identification of themes”.
A software was used to facilitate the coding
process. After all the data was coded it was brought
back to the interviewees to so that they could read
the transcriptions to validate the contents. “This
process involved debriefings and discussions with
study participants by providing them with the
analyzed research data for a final validation step.”
McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015)
1. Were the findings effectively summarized, with good use
of excerpts from the data and with strong supporting
● Findings provided in the discussion section are of
high quality and well interpreted by the researchers.
The findings are precise and all necessary
information is given for the reader to fully
understand the study. There are many previous
studies included in the discussion section to relate
the findings and prove them important in the aim to
understanding good nursing care for patients in an
ICU setting provided by the novice nurses.. The
researchers have many interpretations that are well
supported by other studies and some that contradict
based on differing methods among studies.
2. Did the themes adequately capture the meaning of the data?
Does it appear that the researcher satisfactorily
conceptualized the themes or patterns in the data?
● The major 3 themes were well developed and
described in the findings section and well related to
the original research purpose of explaining the
phenomena of high attrition among new graduate
nurses in the acute care setting. The article goes
into detail about the reasons for nurse’s concerns
about bridging their knowledge gap with their
previous education, the importance of practical
skills in order to effectively function, and finally
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
concern for nurses difficult transition from school
to the acute care clinical setting to work as new
graduate nurses.
3. Did the analysis yield an insightful, provocative, authentic,
and meaningful picture of the phenomenon under
● The findings of the conducted analysis were relayed
in very insightful, authentic and meaningful way. It
captivated the attention of the reader and portrayed
a well developed idea on the matter. Detailed
description of the findings on researched
phenomena revealed direct correlation between
educational preparedness, amount of experience
and performance by the novice nurses in the ICU
Summary assessment
1. Do the study findings appear to be trustworthy- do you
have confidence in the truth values of the result?
● When analyzing the findings of the study, the truth
values of the results is valid. McCalla-Graham, &
De Gagne, (2015) offers an in depth analysis of the
sample and the interview process offers great
insight into the condition of nursing shortage in the
United States.
2. Does the study contribute any meaningful evidence that
can be used in nursing practice or that is useful to the
nursing discipline?
● This study does contribute meaningful evidence,
McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) offers
insight into what can be done to curb the attrition of
nurses. They suggest that measures (from
employment organizations) should be put into
place to retain graduate nurses to decrease the issue
of high turnover rates in acute care settings and that
efforts should be made to assist in the transition
from nursing school to the workforce to keep
people in the profession. The findings of the
research are transferable and have practical
Running head: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
Benner, P. E. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice.
Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Nursing Division.
McCalla-Graham, J. A., & De Gagne, J. C. (2015). The lived experience of new graduate nurses
working in an acute care setting. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 46(3),
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2018). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for
nursing practice (9th edition.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health /Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins.
Article Critique Quantitative Assignment
Group 2
Emotion and Coping in the Aftermath of Medical Error: A Cross Country Exploration.

Was the most rigorous possible design used, given the purpose of the research? The
purpose of this research was to,” investigate the following the professional or personal
disruption experienced after making an error, b) the emotional response and coping
strategies used, c) the relationship between emotions and coping strategy selection, d)
influential factors in clinicians’ responses, and e) perceptions of organizational support.”
A cross sectional, cross country survey of 265 medical professionals was conducted in
order to research and evaluate how medical errors influence and effect medical
professionals. A cross sectional study, “is an observational type of study that analyzes
data and variables collected at one given point of time across a sample population”. I
think a cross sectional study was the most rigorous possible design used because the
study purpose is to to describe the overall picture of a situational problem by asking a
cross-section of a given population at one specified moment in time.

Were appropriate comparisons made to enhance interpretability of the findings? A
number of variables, such as level of emotions or type of emotions, were placed in
comparison to facilitate easy interpretation of the data.

Was the number of data collection points appropriate? I believe the data
collection process was appropriate because the study was able to gather and measure
information on topic of interest. The data collection was organized and efficient which
enabled the researchers to test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.

Did the design minimize biases and threats to the validity of the study? The design
minimized biases because they kept the data confidential and distributed on multiple
platforms. “Participants were presented with the study information sheet and consent
form and completed an online or paper survey. No identifiable information was gathered,
surveys were completed confidentially, and paper copies were returned using freepost
Population and Sample

Was the population identified and described? Was the sample described in sufficient
detail? Yes, the population and sample were described in sufficient detail. The population
was 265 physicians and nurses in 2 large teaching hospitals in the United Kingdom and
the United States. The sample size was described as the following, “A responder sample
was used, and a cross-section of health professionals was recruited in this way, but only
data from the physicians and nurses were included because the sample sizes of the other
health professions, despite being proportional, were too small to draw statistical

Was the best possible sampling design used to enhance the sample’s representativeness?
Were sample biases minimized? The responses received through responder sampling are
commonly biased towards the given topic. As a responder the person usually chooses to
volunteer for the survey because they might have strong opinion towards the subject.

Was the sample size adequate? Was a power analysis used to estimate sample size needs?
The sample size was adequate and fit into the appropriate demographics for the given
study. The study never stated if a power analysis was used to estimate the sample size
Data Collection and Measurement

Were key variable operationalized using the best possible method? (Interviews,
observations, and so on?) Yes, the researchers used the Health Professional Experience of
Error Questionnaire (HPEEQ) to assess the emotional and coping strategies of the
healthcare professionals who made medical errors. This tool was developed from past
data describing different levels of error.

Are the specific instruments adequately described, and were they good choices, given the
study population? The study population consisted of nurses and physicians in two
teaching hospitals. The instruments used for the study included descriptive statistics,
surveys, and the questionnaire. The questionnaire was highly described including what
each section was composed of and what is was measuring. The authors of the study
explained the self-reported measures were the best option due to the nature of the study:
medical errors and emotion regarding the medical errors.

Did the report provide evidence that the data collection methods yielded data that were
high on reliability and validity? No, but the results were taken directly from the study
itself. The authors did not report the validity of the study. They stated that it was difficult
to assess the assessment tool because it is a relatively new area of research. They also
stated that since it is a new area of research, there is not much to compare the study

If there was an intervention, was it adequately described, and was it properly
implemented? Did …
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nursing practice


Nursing research

City University Of New York

Emotion and Coping in the Aftermath of Medical Error A Cross Country Exploration

Bullying among nursing staff Relationship with psychological behavioral response of nurses

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