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I’m working on a management question and need an explanation to help me learn.

No plagiarism. No match, pleaseand using APA style referenceUsing Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.Answers should be in the same file that I sent

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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
MGT 312
Assignment III
Decision Making and Problem Solving (MGT312)
Deadline for students: End of Week 13 (17/04/2021@ 23:59)
(To be posted/released to students on BB anytime in Week 11)
Course Name: Decision Making and
Problem Solving
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT312
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: II
CRN:
Academic Year: 1441/1442 H
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be
reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or
other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.
No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Course Learning Outcomes-Covered

Describe decision making process for complex issues pertaining to business environment both
internally and externally (C.L.O :1)

Demonstrate effective leadership skills and teamwork capacity for efficient decision making
with the problem owners and other stakeholders as either a team member or a team leader.
(C.L.O :5)

Explain and apply critical thinking and cognitive psychology as it pertains to analyze and
synthesize information for problem solving and decision making. (C.L.O :3)
Assignment Instructions:
• Log in to Saudi Digital Library (SDL) via University’s website
• On first page of SDL, choose “English Databases”
• From the list find and click on EBSCO database.
• In the search bar of EBSCO find the following article:
Title:
“Your Team Is Brainstorming All Wrong”
Author:
Art Markman
Date of Publication:
May 18, 2017
Published:
Harvard Business Review
Assignment Questions:
(Marks 05)
1. Article Question: Read the attached article titled as “Your Team Is Brainstorming All Wrong”
by Art Markman, published in Harvard Business Review, and answer the following Questions:
a. Summarize the article and explain the main issues discussed in the article.
(In 400-500 words)
(Marks 2)
b. What do you think about the article in relations to what you have learnt in the course
about divergent thinking and group decision making? Use additional reference to
support you argument. (In 250-400 words)
(Marks 1.5)
2. Critical Thinking Question: If you collect too much information for analyzing a decision,
you can suffer from analysis paralysis, where you spend too much time thinking about a
decision rather than making one. Recall a major financial decision you made recently, such as
of a car or housing purchase or rental. Describe your process for making the decision. How
could analysis paralysis have affected this process? (In 150-300 words)
(Marks 1.5)
ANSWER
CREATIVITY
Your Team Is
Brainstorming All Wrong
by Art Markman
MAY 18, 2017
Jennifer Maravillas for HBR
When your team is tasked with generating ideas to solve a problem, suggesting a brainstorming
session is a natural reaction. But does that approach actually work?
Although the term “brainstorming” is now used as a generic term for having groups develop ideas, it
began as the name of a specific technique proposed by advertising executive Alex Osborn in the
1950s. He codified the basic rules that many of us follow when getting people together to generate
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2
ideas: Toss out as many ideas as possible. Don’t worry if they’re too crazy. Build on the ideas people
generate. Don’t criticize initially.
These rules seem so obvious and clear that it’s hard to believe they don’t work. However, decades of
studies demonstrate that groups that use Osborn’s rules of brainstorming come up with fewer ideas
(and fewer good ideas) than the individuals would have developed alone.
VIDEO BRAINSWARMING: BECAUSE BRAINSTORMING DOESN’T WORK
TO VIEW, PLEASE VISIT THIS ARTICLE AT HBR.ORG
There are several reasons for this productivity loss, as academics call it. For one, when people work
together, their ideas tend to converge. As soon as one person throws out an idea, it affects the
memory of everyone in the group and makes them think a bit more similarly about the problem than
they did before. In contrast, when people work alone, they tend to diverge in their thinking, because
everyone takes a slightly different path to thinking about the problem.
You can harness the power of divergence and convergence to fix brainstorming, and several studies
demonstrate that this works effectively. Here are some of the lessons from this research.
Let Individuals Work Alone First
Early in creative acts it’s important to diverge, that is, to think about what you are doing in as many
ways as possible. Later, you want to converge on a small number of paths to follow in more detail.
Many techniques use a structure like this. For example, in the 6-3-5 method, six people sit around a
table and write down three ideas. They pass their stack of ideas to the person on their right, who
builds on them. This passing is done five times, until everyone has had the chance to build on each of
the ideas. Afterward, the group can get together to evaluate the ideas generated.
There are many variations of techniques like this. What they have in common is that they allow
individual work during divergent phases of creativity and group work during convergent phases.
Techniques like this can be used in multiple rounds. For example, it is often important to spend time
agreeing on the problem to be solved. A whole round of divergence and convergence on the problem
statement can be done before giving people a chance to suggest solutions.
Take Your Time
Another difficulty with brainstorming is that there are often some people in the group who don’t like
uncertainty. They want to finish the process quickly and get on with implementing the new solution.
These people are high in a personality characteristic called need for closure.
It’s important that groups have time to explore enough ideas that they can consider more than just
the first few possibilities that people generate. One reason why techniques like 6-3-5 are successful is
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3
that they slow the creative process down. They alert everyone in the group up front that evaluation
isn’t going to happen until everyone has generated ideas and has had a chance to build on them. As a
result, even people high in need for closure are forced to wait until the ideas are developed.
Let People Draw
Many brainstorming sessions involve people talking about solutions. That biases people toward
solutions that are easy to talk about. It may also lead to solutions that are abstract and may never
work in practice.
As a result, many techniques (such as C-Sketching) require people to draw pictures rather than
writing. Our studies suggest that a combination of drawing and writing is ideal for generating creative
solutions to problems.
There are several reasons why drawing is helpful.
First, it’s hard for people to describe spatial relationships, so any solution that requires a spatial
layout is better described with pictures than with words. Second, a large amount of the brain is
devoted to visual processing, so sketching and interpreting drawings increases the involvement of
those brain regions in idea generation. Third, it is often difficult to describe processes purely in
words, so diagrams are helpful.
One caution about drawing: People tend to sketch quickly, in ways that make their sketches hard to
interpret, so it’s useful to have words in the diagrams to help with the interpretation of these
sketches. But haste may not be all bad. The same studies I referenced above also demonstrate that
when other people look at crudely drawn sketches, they may misinterpret elements of the drawings
in ways that serendipitously lead to new ideas.
One of the joys of the brainstorming session is you, as the group leader, don’t need to spend that
much time facilitating or preparing. You just get people in a room and go. But while this makes things
easier for you, it’s not good for the group. To develop stronger ideas, you need to manage the
conversation so that the team doesn’t converge on a solution before everyone hears what others are
thinking. Until you develop some expertise in helping groups to develop ideas, use a technique like
6-3-5. It’s often easier to follow a process and watch how it unfolds than to try to manage a group
dynamically and sense when the group is ready to start working together.
Art Markman, PhD, is the Annabel Irion Worsham Centennial Professor of Psychology and Marketing at the University of
Texas at Austin and founding director of the program in the Human Dimensions of Organizations. He has written over 150
scholarly papers on topics including reasoning, decision making, and motivation. He is the author of several books
including Smart Thinking, Smart Change, and Habits of Leadership.
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4
Copyright 2017 Harvard Business Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Additional restrictions
may apply including the use of this content as assigned course material. Please consult your
institution’s librarian about any restrictions that might apply under the license with your
institution. For more information and teaching resources from Harvard Business Publishing
including Harvard Business School Cases, eLearning products, and business simulations
please visit hbsp.harvard.edu.

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