Question Description

I’m working on a management case study and need a sample draft to help me learn.

no match The Assignment must be on(WORD format only) Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.

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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Deadline: 06/03/2021 @ 23:59
Course Name: Quality management
Student’s Name
Course Code: 424
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: II
CRN:
Academic Year: 1441/1442 H
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade:
5
Marks Obtained/Out of
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
1. The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
2. Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
3. Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be
reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
4. Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
5. Late submission will NOT be accepted.
6. Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or
other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
7. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.
No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
8. Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
9. Assignment -1 should be submitted on or before the end of Week- 7 .
Learning Outcome:
1. Implement a system for the importance of standardization and quality standards (LO: 2.5 &
2.9)
2. Develop strategies for organizational change and transformation. (LO: 4.5 & 4.6)
• Instructions to search the journal Article:
Via your student services page, log in to the Saudi Digital Library. After your login with your
student ID, search for the following article:
“Developing a generic model for total quality management in higher education in Saudi Arabia”
AHMAD I. AL-SHAFEI1,2, KHALID BIN ABDULRAHMAN1, KHALID I. AL-QUMAIZI1
& ABDELMONIEM S. EL-MARDI1
1Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia, 2King Saud University, Saudi
Arabia
This aforementioned article presents a developed generic model for quality management in
higher education sector in Saudi Arabia that is needed to improve the overall performance of this
field.
Download the journal article, read it carefully and answer the following questions in your
own words:
1- In brief, summarize the article using your own words. ( Minimum of 200 words ) ,( 2
Marks )
2- In the article, the authors discussed four models emphasizing quality management in teaching
and learning. Choose one of these models to make your own research about “its foundations
and drawbacks if there is any”
(You can search using the online resources, printed books and articles). (Minimum of 200
words), (2 Marks)
3- To which extent do you agree with the proposed generic holistic model for quality
management in teaching and learning?
Support your side with evidence (Minimum of 100), { 1 Mark}.
Medical Teacher
ISSN: 0142-159X (Print) 1466-187X (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/imte20
Developing a generic model for total quality
management in higher education in Saudi Arabia
Ahmad I. Al-shafei, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid I. Al-Qumaizi &
Abdelmoniem S. El-Mardi
To cite this article: Ahmad I. Al-shafei, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid I. Al-Qumaizi
& Abdelmoniem S. El-Mardi (2015) Developing a generic model for total quality
management in higher education in Saudi Arabia, Medical Teacher, 37:sup1, S1-S4, DOI:
10.3109/0142159X.2015.1006607
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2015.1006607
Published online: 24 Mar 2015.
Submit your article to this journal
Article views: 1937
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Citing articles: 3 View citing articles
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=imte20
2015, 37: S1–S4
COMMENTARY
Developing a generic model for total
quality management in higher education
in Saudi Arabia
AHMAD I. AL-SHAFEI1,2, KHALID BIN ABDULRAHMAN1, KHALID I. AL-QUMAIZI1 &
ABDELMONIEM S. EL-MARDI1
1
Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia, 2King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Abstract
The field of higher education has been progressing at a rapid pace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past decade, with
doubling the number of government and private universities and colleges. Quality and accreditation are of great importance
to higher education institutes world-wide. Thus, developing a generic model for quality management in higher education is
badly needed in the country.
Introduction
There are several definitions for quality in the literature. It can
simply be defined as the ability of a particular system to
provide and ensure the quality of the services, which it
provides and improve the outputs, which it produces so as to
satisfy the expectations of the customers of the provided
services and produced outputs. Quality control is a productoriented process aiming at checking the products/outputs/
services of a particular system and comparing them with
predefined and referenced quality criteria and standard
specifications. Appropriate measures and actions will then be
undertaken if the products/outputs/services of the system do
not comply with the specified quality standards (Talaat &
Khamis 2012). On the other hand, quality assurance is a
preventive strategy that ensures compliance of the products/
outputs/services of a particular system with its predefined
quality standards and specifications. Such a precautionary
scheme comprises the policies and protocols that control the
different steps of the production process. It also encompasses
the enforced measures and actions, which will be undertaken
to avoid any potential problems or faults in achieving quality
of the products/outputs/services of the system. Such a
preventive approach is thus a process-oriented rather than a
product-oriented system. Quality assurance is accomplished
through the implementation of specific steps, including audits
and issuing reports and other measures (Talaat & Khamis
2012).
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed rapid change
and important development in higher education in all fields
and at all levels over the past 10 years (The National Report on
Higher Education in the KSA 2009; Bin Abdulrahman 2011;
Telmesani et al. 2011). The number of higher education
institutes has doubled to 52 universities and colleges funded
by the government and private sectors, and there are currently
31 medical schools in the country (Bin Abdulrahman 2011; Bin
Abdulrahman et al. 2012). During this same decade, revolutionary changes have occurred in the fields of quality and
accreditation. The fact that quality is one of the main
challenges to higher education in the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia necessitated the developing of a generic model for total
quality management in higher education institutes in the
kingdom.
Quality management in higher
education
Quality is greatly needed in higher education in order to
ensure the efficient performance and continuous improvement
and development of higher education universities and institutions, which in turn results in gaining the confidence of the
community and funding agencies, and building up trust in their
graduates (Srikanthan 1999). Moreover, the current view of
most of the governments, world-wide, to higher education is
that higher education has to be more responsive in terms of:
(a) Tuning higher education to the social and economic needs
as much as possible, (b) Increasing the accessibility and
availability to higher education, (c) Increasing the number of
universities and higher education institutes and hence
decreasing unit cost, and (d) Ensuring consistency between
the services and outputs provided by of universities and higher
education institutes. Adopting quality in higher education
deals and addresses these issues and increases the compliance
of universities and higher education institutes with these
concerns (Srikanthan 1999).
Correspondence: Prof. Khalid Bin Abdulrahman, Professor of Family Medicine & Medical education, Vice Rector for Planning, Development &
Quality, Professor Chair, Dr AlKholi Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University
(IMSIU), P.O. Box: 7544, Al-Nada, Riyadh 13317-4233, Saudi Arabia. Tel: 00966112586667; Fax: 00966966112591818; E-mail: kab@imamu.edu.sa
ISSN 0142-159X print/ISSN 1466-187X online/15/S10001–S4 ß 2015 Informa UK Ltd.
DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2015.1006607
S1
A. I. Al-Shafei et al.
Structure/Inputs
Students
Faculty Members
Curriculum
Praccal and Research
Laboratories
IT support
Process
Outcome
/Outputs
University/instuon
Infrasturcture
Graduates
Financial, Technical and
Adminstrave supports
of university/instute
Other inputs
Research
Community
Service
Figure 1. Dimensions of quality in higher education.
Like in other systems, quality in relation to universities
and higher education institutes has three principal dimensions;
namely the structure (inputs), the process and the outcome
(outputs) as shown in Figure 1. Thus, in higher education,
quality is achieved by performing the core functions
and producing the major outcomes or outputs of teaching/
learning (graduates), research, and community service
(Srikanthan 1999).
In order to achieve these core functions in higher education, quality management (planning, assurance, and control),
should be adopted in the inputs, processes, and outputs with
greater emphasis on the outputs/outcomes. The university/
higher education institute must be committed to maintaining
and improving quality, through effective leadership and active
participation of all faculty members, administrative staff as well
as students. This necessitates the establishment of a Quality
Deanship/Unit within the structure of the central administration of the university/higher education institution. Such a
Quality Deanship/Unit should be supported with the appropriate staff, and financial, administrative, and technical
resources; to be able to work effectively (NCAAA 2011).
Spreading the culture of quality at the academic level is
equally important for the proper running of the Quality
Deanship/Unit (Srikanthan 1999).
ISO 9000:2000 and TQM standards
as quality management models in
higher education
The Quality Deanship/Unit must apply a quality management model in order to ensure, maintain, and improve
S2
quality. There have been several attempts to apply quality management models/strategies imported from industry
into higher education (Srikanthan 1999; Srikanthan &
Dalrymple 2003).
These include the following:
Quality assurance system to ISO 9000:2000 standards:
This system is based on eight quality management principles:
(1) Customer driven definitions of quality, (2) Involvement of
Leadership, (3) Engagement of people, (4) Process-oriented
approach, (5) Systematic operandi for management,
(6) Ongoing improvement, (7) Evidence-based approach to
decision-making, and (8) Reciprocal beneficial supplier
relationships
Total quality management (TQM) model: This model
is based on the following management principles (Srikanthan
1999): (1) Constant improvement, (2) Management commitment, (3) Customer or product driven definitions of quality,
(4) Team work, (5) Effective communication, and (6)
Deployability of statistical techniques in monitoring the
processes and solving the problems.
The attempts of using Quality Assurance System to
ISO 9000:2000 Standards or the TQM model in higher
education were, however, unsuccessful for the following
reasons:
(1) The service and education functions of higher education
should have different sets of quality criteria and
specifications.
(2) The ISO 9000:2000 and TQM Standards are suitable for
systems having well-defined processes and providing
specific services, e.g. banking, tourism, etc. Such systems
could therefore be managed and controlled by the ISO
9000 and TQM Standards. On the other hand, given that
Quality management in higher education in the KSA
higher education has two major functions; namely the
service and education functions, higher education cannot
be well and thoroughly managed and controlled by the
ISO 9000 and TQM standards.
(3) The ISO 9000:2000 and particularly the TQM could
be an appropriate model for the service functions
but not the education functions of higher education.
This function cannot be measured or controlled by
variables since it is far too extensive in the processes
and delivery (Srikanthan 1999; Srikanthan & Dalrymple
2003).
(4) The ISO 9000:2000 and TQM standards are based on
customer or product driven definitions of quality. In
higher education, there are several customers including
students, employer, government, etc., and there are
several products including education, knowledge,
research, community service, etc.
(5) One of the major quality management in the TQM
standards is effective communications within the university/higher education institute. This is rarely reached in
higher education (Srikanthan 1999).
Models emphasizing quality
management in teaching and
learning
Transformative model: This model is based on the
following management principles in higher education: (1)
The teaching and learning processes should be transparent
and integrated and thus leading to ‘‘Total Student
Experience’’, (2) Teaching and learning is based on a
dialogue between learners and teachers. With the rise of
social accountability, such dialogue should be expanded to
include other stakeholders including the community,
patients, and users/employers as well, (3) Existence of
dynamic exchange among the teachers about the teaching
and learning, and (4) Providing effective feed-back to
students (Srikanthan & Dalrymple 2003).
An engagement model of program quality: Such model
is based on the following management principles in higher
education: (1) Engagement of students, academics, and
administrative staff (leaders) in teaching and learning, (2)
Participatory cultures, (3) Interactive Teaching and learning,
(4) Connected Program Requirements, (5) Adequate resources
(Srikanthan & Dalrymple 2003).
University of learning model: This model postulates that
the core functions of higher education namely: education,
research, and community are essentially related to learning at
different levels. Thus, improves learning in higher education
improves quality of higher education (Srikanthan & Dalrymple
2003).
Model of a responsive university: This model postulates
that in order to maintain and improve quality in higher
education, the universities and higher education institutes must
be responsive and service-oriented. This necessitates building
new relationships and partnerships both internally and externally (Srikanthan & Dalrymple 2003).
Generic model for quality
management in teaching and
learning (QMTL) in higher education
in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The above mentioned models emphasizing quality management in teaching and learning complement each other and
revolve around two major management principles in higher
education; namely: (1) Student learning and (2) Dynamic
collaboration at the education delivery level (Srikanthan &
Dalrymple 2003).
It is worth noting here the experience of the Faculty of
Medicine at Damascus University in applying a quality
assurance system model to curriculum transformation. There
have been several obstacles in applying such system, such as
the bureaucratic university governance structures and the rigid
rules and regulations (Kayyal & Gibbs 2012a,b). The applied
model revolved around a number of themes and measures
including:
(1) Establishing an organizational management system.
(2) Involving senior faculty members who are more likely to
be laggards in the initiation and planning phase of the
transformation process.
(3) Adopting an appreciative inquiry approach to let all
faculty members be involved and participate in the
change.
(4) Developing a transparent communication plan with the
faculty members during the different phase of curriculum
transformation.
(5) Securing resources for transformation.
(6) Risk assessment and risk management plan.
Such model is just limited to curriculum transformation in a
medical school and does not ensure quality of teaching and
learning. Thus, there is need to develop a Generic Holistic
Model for Quality Management in Teaching and Learning
(QMTL) that encompasses all the management principles of
the above-mentioned models. Such a model should be based
on the following two aspects: (1) Clear focus on ‘‘transformation’’ of the learners, and (2) A synergistic collaboration
at the learning interface (Srikanthan & Dalrymple 2003).
This model addresses the rationale for having different sets
of quality criteria and specifications for the service and
education functions of higher education aspects (Srikanthan
& Dalrymple 2003).
Implementing the generic holistic
model for quality management in
teaching and learning (QMTL)
Implementing the generic holistic model for quality management in teaching and learning (QMTL) ensures the adoption of
the management principles of all the models mentioned-above
and emphasizing quality management in teaching and learning. This includes the following actions and measures:
(1) Transformation of the learners.
(2) Engagement of students, academics, and administrative
staff (leaders) in the teaching and learning and thus
enriching the learning experience for the students.
S3
A. I. Al-Shafei et al.
(3) Interactive teaching and learning.
(4) Academic professionalism that emphasizes openness,
dialogue and transparency and thus improving the staffstudent interface.
(5) Enhancing the learning experience of students by
increasing their ability to discern the relevant aspects of
variation. This is accomplished by the synergistic involvement of academics in both the teaching and research
teams.
(6) Ensuring the responsive and service-oriented nature of
the universities and higher education institutes.
(7) Building new relationships and partnerships both internally and externally with the community, industry, government, and other institutions locally and internationally.
From the discussion above, it is evident that we would
select the generic holistic model for quality management in
teaching and learning (QMTL) to provide the quality of
education that we plan and aim for our institution. We would
further encourage other institutions to adopt such model in
their educational systems. We plan to disseminate the model to
other medical colleges world-wide through the Saudi
International Medical Education Conference (SIMEC), which
is the official international medical education conference of the
Saudi Society for Medical Education (SSME) and the Saudi
Deans Committee (SDC). SIMEC is one of the largest
international meetings in medical education dedicated to
reporting and discussing recent developments and research
in medical education. SIMEC 2014 is the fourth conference to
be held in Saudi Arabia and was hosted by the College of
Medicine at Al-Qassim University in Qassim from 24 to 27
November 2014. Leading international medical education
experts shared their experiences in medical education and it
should have been a good opportunity for disseminating QMTL.
Notes on contributors
AHMAD I. AL-SHAFEI, MD, PhD, MHPE, was an Associate Professor in
Physiology and Medical Education and the Head of the Assessment Unit at
the College of Medicine at Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic
University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He is currently an Associate
Professor in Physiology King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
KHALID BIN ABDULRAHMAN, MD, is a Professor of Family Medicine and
Medical Education,
Vice Rector for Planning, Development & Quality. Professor Chair,
Dr AlKholi Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia,
Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia.
S4
KHALID I. AL-QUMA …
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Tags:
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