400845 The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme

400845 The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme

Free Samples

400845 The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

400845 The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme

0 Download7 Pages / 1,743 Words

Course Code: 400845
University: Western Sydney University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

The Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and the consumption of medicines in Australia
Within the report, students must address the following areas:
The report should utilize appropriate data from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) as well as other relevant health and pharmaceutical-related data available in the public domain. Students should reference academic literature and analysis of the PBS to construct their response to the areas above. When appropriate, data should be expressed using charts and tables to illustrate comparisons, trends or other analysis. Students should present a clear understanding of the PBS and its financial implications for the health sector and for consumers and provide recommendations on how the scheme could be made more efficient and provide positive impacts on costs and consumption.

Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme 
Pharmaceuticals Benefits Scheme (PBS) was developed by the Australian government to subsidize the medical costs. The initial attempt was to provide free medications to the Australians. This includes antibiotics and emergency medicines. The Australian government submitted this proposal in 1944. However, later the proposal was dismissed in Australian High court and a regulation was released in 1948. The regulation states that the free medications would be provided for the pensioners and most of the medicine would be common life-saving medicines (Currow & Sansom, 2014). At the early of 1960, more medicines were included in the free medications for the pensioners. Presently PBS is one of the important parts of the National Medicines policy of Australia under the regulation National Health Act (1953). As per a recent report, the subsidy provided by the Australian government to the PBS is around $9.1billion which is 21% of overall Australian health expense. Moreover, the number of prescription gathered by the government is 211million. However, the number of medicines are including gradually within the PBS scheme along with the invested amount.  This study will aim to explore the issues that the Australian government is facing regarding the PBS scheme and the number of risk factors will be identified (Faunce, 2015). In addition, the betterment procedures of the organization will be analyzed properly. The interventions for the overuse or mal-use of this scheme will be analyzed followed by a conclusion outlining the key factors of the study by outlining an overall solution. The ultimate exploration of the study will pay attention to the disclosures of the ultimate prices under this policy and effect of PBS on the pricing of the medicines.
General discussion of the issue
The PBS scheme has been enforced by the government of Australia to mitigate the health issues around Australia. It would affect the healthcare practices for the old ages around the country. Presently, the Australian government has included around 793 types of medicines within this scheme and 2066 forms of medical dosages of these medicines. In addition, 5300 brands would sponsor those 793 types of medicines. Recently, PBS has applied a new scheme; PBS Safety Net that would protect the cost of the patients from buying costly medicines in a whole year (Goddard, 2014). This policy of this scheme state medicine facility would be free for those persons and families who would avail the medicines to the equal amount of threshold from Safety net. This facility would be beneficial for the patients to reduce their medical costs for the rest of the year. In addition, the amount of threshold does not equal the amount of medical price for the whole year, the patient would only have to pay only $6.20. For the amount of threshold worth $372, the patients would get a large concession of the medicine price up to $1457. Thus, these cost-benefit techniques are used to increase the financial capability of the common people by reducing the price of the medicine and medical treatment (Graham, 2017). The scheme has segregated medicines into five categories; general medicines, veterans medicines, medicines with special arrangements, statistical PBS medicine, and the lifesaving medicines.
General medicines:  The general medicines imply the medicines that are dispensed by the community medicines. This type of medicine falls under the General Schedule of National Health Act (1951) under the Section 85.
Veterans’ medicines: These are the subsidized medicines that are provided for the pensioners and the veterans which is regulated by the departments of Veterans Affairs.  The veterans medicines are generally provided under the Veterans Entitlements Act (1986).
Medicine with special arrangements: the medicines with special arrangements are the necessary medicines that are not generally provided to the community pharmacies. It requires special storage and special arrangement due to its sensitivity which is not available in the community pharmacies (Groenewold & Paterson, 2013). These types of medicines are provided under the Section100. The special arrangements include special drug programs and efficient findings. Moreover, the scheme subsidies in the toxin medicines, growth medicines and fertilization medicines are depicted to be increasing.
Statistical PBS medicines: The statistical PBS medicines include the PBS statistics regarding the expenditure of the PBS through prescriptions. The prescriptions are generally not cost beneficial an. Thus, the ultimate focus of the business is to provide a report based on the general medicines and PBS reports that are intended in the official websites of the Human Service department.
Lifesaving medicines: A large number of subsidy is provided by the Australian government on the lifesaving medicines. The subsidies are provided under the campaign of Lifesaving Drug program. So far, 278 families around Australia were helpful with this facility (Hassali, Shafie, Babar & Khan, 2012).
Issues explored
Issues on PBS
Several issues have been identified regarding the PBS. The issues are :

Unethical advantageIssue: Unethical advantage is one of the key issues that can be stated on PBS scheme. This scheme was generally enforced for the people who are not financially capable enough to buy costly and lifesaving medicines. However, some people were taking unethical advantages of this scheme and use to avail the threshold to reduce the normal prices of the medicines. Indirectly, this affects the financial efficiency of Australia. In addition, the needy people sometimes become unable to avail this opportunity of subsidy (Knott, Clarke, Heeley & Chalmers, 2015).
The diversity in the clinical settings, disease and pharma and non-pharmacological treatments in Australia can be a hindrance to the effective utilization of PBS. Hence, it is impossible to measure the improvement of a cancer patient having two months of progression level. An equalized cost of the medicine is genuinely required to clarify the statistics. Further, the issue got complicated while defining the distinction between treatment and the available resources for the treatment (Lofgren, 2009).
Application issue: Delay in the application is one of the key issues as the government of a normal price of the medicines can be differentiated into high price medicine, increase in the cost of the medicine and delay in the market accession. Thus, it creates complication while implicating the PBS evaluation.

Further improvement
There must be given sufficient time to evaluate the PBS scheme. The evaluation of the PBS scheme would be helpful to identify the ultimate costs and the available schemes for that person. Moreover, the government must enforce a quick initiative to mitigate the delay issue by enforcing several crucial norms. In addition, if a medicine is not properly applicable to the norms mentioned in PBC regulations, the sponsors of PBC should prepare and resubmit the listing of PBC (Löfgren, 2009).  
A recent statistics has signified that high-level rigor must be applied to detect the differences in treatment. Moreover, it can be applied to identify the types of and resources of differences. Thus, it has clinically different from the clinical outcomes.
Effect on overuse
The misuse of pharmaceutical drugs is increasing over the years. An evidence-based survey has disclosed the overuse of drugs a concerning on the drug treatment data. The application of PBS technique is not harmful at all but the overuse is associated with the poisoning, injection-related problems and unethical selling of pharmaceutical equipment’s (Robertson, Walkom & Henry, 2009). The key factors that can affect misuse or overuse of medicines are

Availability multiple opioids
The clinical advice from the medical institutions that have invoked the use of medicine even after discharge from the medical institutions
Difficulty in pain management
Unavailability of non-opioid treatment
The intimidation would lead the patient to inappropriate prescription

The demographical changes would impact on the population of aging and increase demand for an opioid. However, the non-opioid is unavailable is correlated with the overuse of drugs. The application of the PBS scheme is capable of mitigating the opioid issue (Salkeld, 2011).
The study has focused on several aspects of PBS scheme which was specially developed to mitigate the high-cost issues on buying the important medicines. It has been a cost-benefit scheme on the part of the Australian government and under the section 85 of legislation National Health Act (1951). Around 273 families were beneficial out of this scheme and most of them got free medicines. The people got $372 threshold got the medicines within $6.20. There are 793 types of medicines have been labeled under this category and the types of medicines attached to these categories are 2066. 5300 brands are associated with the scheme. However, there are several issues raised in this scheme regarding unethical advantage issue, methodological issue, and delay in application issue (Gowing, Hickman & Degenhardt, 2013). Sufficient time must be given to evaluating the PBS scheme and the government must be is hurriedness to mitigate the delay issues. Otherwise, the schemes can be used or overused. Thus, ethical implementation of the issue is required for the effective outcome and it is required to apply high-level rigor to decrease the issues regarding the proper implication of PBS.  
Currow, D., & Sansom, L. (2014). Uptake of medicines and prescribing patterns in the palliative care schedule of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The Medical Journal Of Australia, 200(10), 560-561. doi: 10.5694/mja14.00188
Faunce, T. (2015). How the Australia-US free trade agreement compromised the pharmaceutical benefits scheme. Australian Journal Of International Affairs, 69(5), 473-478. doi: 10.1080/10357718.2015.1048785
Goddard, M. (2014). How the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme began. The Medical Journal Of Australia, 201(1), 23-25. doi: 10.5694/mja14.00124
Gowing, L., Hickman, M., & Degenhardt, L. (2013). Mitigating the risk of HIV infection with opioid substitution treatment. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 91(2), 148-149. doi: 10.2471/blt.12.109553
Graham, D. (2017). Regulation of proprietary traditional Chinese medicines in Australia. Chinese Journal Of Natural Medicines, 15(1), 12-14. doi: 10.1016/s1875-5364(17)30004-3
Groenewold, N., & Paterson, J. (2013). Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in Australia: Are Commodity Prices the Missing Link?. Australian Economic Papers, 52(3-4), 159-170. doi: 10.1111/1467-8454.12014
Hassali, M., Shafie, A., Babar, Z., & Khan, T. (2012). A study comparing the retail drug prices between Northern Malaysia and Australia. Journal Of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, 3(2), 103-107. doi: 10.1111/j.1759-8893.2011.00080.x
Knott, R., Clarke, P., Heeley, E., & Chalmers, J. (2015). Measuring the Progressivity of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Australian Economic Review, 48(2), 122-132. doi: 10.1111/1467-8462.12103
Lofgren, H. (2009). Generic Medicines in Australia: Business Dynamics and Recent Policy Reform. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1471687
Löfgren, H. (2009). The economic crisis, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, and the dilemmas of medicines policy. Australian Health Review, 33(2), 171. doi: 10.1071/ah090171
Robertson, J., Walkom, E., & Henry, D. (2009). Transparency in pricing arrangements for medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Australian Health Review, 33(2), 192. doi: 10.1071/ah090192
Salkeld, G. (2011). Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme cost recovery. Australian Prescriber, 34, 62-63. doi: 10.18773/austprescr.2011.036

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 7 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2021). The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/400845-the-pharmaceutical-benefit-scheme/general-medicines.html.

“The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme.” My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/400845-the-pharmaceutical-benefit-scheme/general-medicines.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/400845-the-pharmaceutical-benefit-scheme/general-medicines.html[Accessed 18 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme’ (My Assignment Help, 2021) accessed 18 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 18 December 2021]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/400845-the-pharmaceutical-benefit-scheme/general-medicines.html.

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.



MyAssignmenthelp.com has become one of the leading assignment help provider in New York City and Boston. We provide top class auditing assignment help. Not only auditing, but we also cover more than 100 subjects and our writers deal with all types of assignments with utmost expertise. To make writing process faster and accurate, we have segmented our assignment experts’ teams as per their expertise on writing different types of assignments. We guaranteed that students who buy our assignment online get solutions worth their investment.

Latest Healthcare Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

5N1794 Safety And Health At Work
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: 5N1794
University: University College Cork

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Ireland

Assignment 1
Answer to question 1
I have conducted a survey at my workplace maned Lady’s Hospice and Care Services to observe the working environment. The aim of the survey is to find if it is a safe, healthy, secured and fulfilling place to work. A visual survey was conducted to locate and record the safety signs in the workplace. The objective of the survey is to observe and list different types of signs, location, their prom…
Australia Maple Ridge Management Introduction to film studies University of New South Wales Masters in Business Administration 

400837 Health And Socio Political Issues In Aged Care
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: 400837
University: Western Sydney University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Palliative care services are designed to improve the life of patient with progressive disease. People receiving palliative care have illness that has no prospect of cure.  As per the World Health Organisation, palliative care is a care given to patient suffering from life threatening illness to improve their quality of life by preventing and providing relief from sufferings by early recognition , assessment and trea…
Australia Minchinbury Management University of New South Wales 

PUBH6304 Global Health
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PUBH6304
University: The University Of Newcastle

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is the spectrum of medical conditions caused due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following which the patient suffers from a series medical complications due to suppression of the immune system of the body. With the progression of the disease, the patient is likely to suffer from a wide range of infections like tuberculosis and other opportu…
United States Newark Management University of New York Masters in Business Administration 

CON 321 Health Related Research
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: CON321
University: University Of Southern Maine

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Leadership in the hospital is the ability to influence the staff toward providing quality health care. Leadership involves influencing human behavior to create a positive working environment (Langlois, 2012). Good leadership enables healthy relationships among staffs in the hospital enhancing quality delivery of health care services. Leadership is responsible to building teams that have trust, respect, support and effecti…

BL9412 Public Health
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: BL9412
University: University Of The West Of England

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

According to the researchers, it can be said that the management of the health care organizations has become a difficult task nowadays and the reason behind this is the occurrence of various issues in this sector (Hall et al., 2014). Therefore, the administrative employees of the organization should incorporate various revolutionized strategies for enriching the worth of care provided by the hospital to its clients and re…
Australia Ryde Management Information system strategy University of New South Wales (UNSW) Masters in Business Administration 


Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by WhatsApp Chat

× How can I help you?