5NMH1018 Health Promotion

5NMH1018 Health Promotion

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5NMH1018 Health Promotion

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5NMH1018 Health Promotion

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Course Code: 5NMH1018
University: University Of Hertfordshire

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Country: United Kingdom


Write an Essay “Assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating a Health Promotion activity”.


Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas. These cells are the ones that make insulin. Insulin is an hormone that helps in moving glucose into the body tissues for use to fuel body functions (Naidoo & Wills, 2010). This condition is also referred to as high blood sugar. This paper researches and discusses empowerment and health promotion for type 1 diabetes in UK. The paper explains the meaning of type 1 diabetes and also discusses the consequences of this condition. The paper also justifies the importance of researching on the health issue as well as the reason why the target group was chosen. The paper also discusses health promotion strategy used in the analysis of the health issue. Resources used in the health promotion activity are also discussed. The final section of the paper analyzes whether or not the objectives of carrying out the health promotion have been achieved.
Health Issue
The objective of this essay is to design an healthy promotion plan for people living with type 1 diabetes in UK. Type 1 diabetes is a condition where glucose is excess in the blood because it is not absorbed into the body tissues. Given that glucose is not absorbed by the body tissues, the cells starve and hence risking the life of the patient. High blood sugar leads to;dehydration, weight loss,diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) and also damages the nerves, kidneys and the heart (Harris, Nimmo & Holland, 2013).Diabetes also leads to cardiovascular diseases and also eyes complications. Type 1 diabetes is very rare. Worldwide,only 5% of the people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.
Assessment of health needs
Globally, it is estimated that diabetes prevalence for adults between the age of 20 and 79 was 382 million people at at 2012. By the year 2035, prevalence is expected to rise to 590 million. In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that about one person in every seventeen people have been diagnosed with diabetes. Of these five percent have diabetes type 1. This means that approximately 400,000 people in UK are currently living with type 1 diabetes. Of these more than 29,000 are children. Statistics from the Health department indicate that incidences of diabetes type one are increasing by four percent each year for children below the age of five. For person above age 20, incidences are increasing by approximately five percent.
The health promotion activity will target children, this is because research evidence indicates that type 1 diabetes affects 96% of all children with diabetes in the UK. Research also indicates that 85% of people diagnosed with diabetes type 1 have no family history of the condition. According to Diabetes UK Organization, UK has the worlds fifth highest rate of Type 1 diabetes. A research conducted by International Diabetes Federation shows that 25% of every 100,000 children between the age of 0 to 15 years are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes every year (Nash, 2013).The exact cause of diabetes type one is not yet clear.
Type one diabetes is an health issue in the UK. It is estimated that NHS currently spends approximately ?10 billion a year to treat diabetes (Taggart & Cousins, 2013). This therefore means that NHS spends approximately ?192million each week on diabetes. The cost is expected to rise to ?39.8 billion by the year 2035.
Researchers have indicated that type 1 diabetes is not linked to obesity or lifestyle (Cleaver, Unell & Aldgate, 2011). This is unlike type two diabetes which is mainly caused obesity and other social factors which affect the health of a person. Behavior and culture therefore does not cause this issue.Evidence also indicates that genetics play some role in causing diabetes. However, a person living with type 1 diabetes needs to have a very controlled social life and they need to avoid certain types of food in order to avoid accelerating the disease.
According to the Ottawa Charter For Health Promotion,health promotion policy combines different but complimentary approaches such as legislation,fiscal measures,taxation and organizational change. Coordination of these policies leads to health, income and social-cultural policies that promote equality. Health promotion policy advocates for creation of supportive environments, strengthening community actions, developing personal skills through education as reorienting health services (Payne & Barker, 2011). The Ottawa Charter health promotion policies also emphasizes the need for looking into the future through caring, holism and ecology. UK health promotion policies are meant to ensure equity in provision of quality health care. The policy focuses in key areas such as;access to care,improving quality of care in general practice, reducing inequalities and patient engagement and involvement.
According to Bradshow`s (1994) classification of needs, the diabetes type two health condition should be classified under the normative need. (Davis & Runyan, 2017) This is because, the condition is diagnosed by a doctor who then recommends prescription to manage the condition. Treatment for this condition is necessary whether or not the patient perceives it necessary. A person with diabetes type 1 therefore needs healthcare.
The health promotion approach used in this exercise is that of patients` perspective. This means that the advice provided to the person should focus on what the person wants and what they are prepared to do to achieve change (Hayden, 2009). Promotion of health will be done by understanding what a person wants to see improved and then giving advice on how the change will be achieved. This approach was chosen because it will ensure that the chosen strategy is able to address the needs of the target group since they best understand what affects them.. The advantage of this approach is that it is very effective since the initiative comes from the target group  (Unger& Schwartz, 2013). The disadvantages of the approach is that the person getting advice may not understand the importance of change. The Health Belief Model(HBM) is used in designing health promotion plan for children with diabetes type 1.
The objectives of this project is to sensitive the community on type 1 diabetes and its causes. The other objective is to advice the community on how to manage the condition especially for children with the condition.
The Health Belief Model(HBM) is a psychological theory that explains and predicts health behaviors.This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of an individual or target group. It was developed first in the year 1950 by Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegels who were working in the US Public Health Service (Cavan, 2014).  The assumptions of the model and statements is that a person will take a health related action if;

The person feels that a negative health condition can be prevented/avoided
If the person feels that taking a recommended action will yield positive results
If a person believes that he/she they can take a recommended health action

The HBM model is based on four pillars which represent the perceived threat and net benefits. They include; perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and perceived barriers (Evans, Scriven & Scriven, 2015). These aspects help in determine a person’s readiness to take action. The concept of self-efficacy was recently added and it represents a person’s ability to perform an action.The project of health promotion for children with diabetes type 1 will be carried out using this model as illustrated below:
The first concept is perceived susceptibility. This concept involves a persons opinion of getting a condition such as diabetes type 1. Children are very susceptible to getting diabetes type 1. As at 2017, the prevalence of diabetes type 1 among children under the age of 19 years was one for every 530. the incidents of type 1 diabetes in children below the age of 14 is 25 for every 100,000 children.(Frost, 2017) The peak age for diagnosis is between age 9 and 14 years. A child whose parent has type 1 diabetes is at a higher risk of getting the condition compared to a child whose parents have never suffered the disease (Watkins & Cousins, 2009). The behavior or belief of a child has no impact on their susceptibility to the condition.
The nect concept is that of perceived susceptibility. This is a person`s opinion of the seriousness and consequences of a condition (Glanz, Rimer, Viswanath & Orleans, 2008). The health promotion program for children with diabetes type 1 will be sensitize people on the effect the of the condition and how serious it is. The team will organize camps in at strategic points such as market places, schools and hospitals. Parents will be encouraged to take their children for free testing so that they can get a clear diagnosis. The consequences of diabetes type 1 include; cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, eye diseases, depression,neuropathy, depression and dementia (World Health Organization. 2016). Once the parents understand the effect of the condition, they are will take things serious and hence seek medical advice on how they can manage the condition.
The perceived benefits benefits of the health promotion plan will motivate the target group to accept the advice. Managing the diabetes condition will help in preventing many diseases that may come as a result of the condition. Diabetes type 1 is managed by;
Insulin replacement through lifelong insulin injection
Monitoring of blood glucose levels regularly
Following strict diet and eating plan
Taking regular exercise
The other concept is that of perceived barriers. The initiative will reduce barriers that may hinder people from managing the condition (Alkon, 2010). This will be done by reassuring the importance of taking their children for diagnosis. Parents will also be offered free insulin to and other equipment that will help them to achieve the objective. Parents will also be advised on the diet that they should administrator to their children who have the condition.
Cues to action are strategies that will be used to activate readiness of the target group to accept the initiative so that the objectives can be achieved. Road shows will be used to sensitize people and invite them to the training sections. Posters and banners will also be placed at strategic places in order to create awareness to the target group.
Self efficacy is about is all about providing training and guidance to the target group in the society. This will help in motivating and giving confidence to the patients to take action and believe that the action will have a positive impact.
Type 1 diabetes is a condition where there is excess glucose in the blood due to failure of the body cells to absorb the glucose. This essay discusses prevalence of diabetes type 1 in children and provides a justification for choosing the topic and the target group. The essay discusses health needs of the condition and decides on the health promotion strategy to be used in the initiative. The health promotion initiative is discussed using the Health Belief Model which helps in explaining and understanding health behavior. The model is applied to explain how the health promotion initiative will be carried out to ensure that the outlined objectives are met.
Alkon, C. (2010). Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby. New York, Demoshealth.
Cavan, D. (2014). Reverse Your Diabetes: The Step-By-Step Plan To Take Control Of Type 2 Diabetes.
Cleaver, H., Unell, I., & Aldgate, J. (2011). Children’s Needs, Parenting Capacity: Child Abuse : Parental Mental Illness, Learning Disability, Substance Misuse, And Domestic Violence.
Davis, E., & Runyan, K. (2017). The Ketogenic Diet For Type 1 Diabetes: Reduce Your Hba1c And Avoid Diabetic Complications.
Evans, J., Scriven, A., & Scriven, A. (2015). Public Health Mini-Guides: Diabetes E-Book.
Frost, G. (2017). Advanced Nutrition And Dietetics In Diabetes. Chichester, John Wiley.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., Viswanath, K., & Orleans, C. T. (2008). Health Behavior And Health Education: Theory, Research, And Practice. San Francisco, Ca, Jossey-Bass. Http://Public.Eblib.Com/Choice/Publicfullrecord.Aspx?p=353367.
Harris, J., Nimmo, S., & Holland, K. (2013). Placement Learning In Community Nursing – E-Book: a Guide For Students In Practice.
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction To Health Behavior Theory. Sudbury, Mass, Jones And Bartlett.
Naidoo, J., & Wills, J. (2010). Developing Practice For Public Health And Health Promotion E-Book.
Nash, J. (2013). Diabetes And Wellbeing: Managing The Psychological And Emotional Challenges Of Diabetes Types 1 And 2. Http://Site.Ebrary.Com/Id/10671482.
Payne, A., & Barker, H. M. (2011). Advancing Dietetics And Clinical Nutrition E-Book.
Taggart, L., & Cousins, W. (2013). Health Promotion For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities.
Unger, J., & Schwartz, Z. (2013). Diabetes Management In Primary Care. Http://Search.Ebscohost.Com/Login.Aspx?Direct=True&Scope=Site&Db=Nlebk&Db=Nlabk&An=1473084.
Watkins, D., & Cousins, J. (2009). Public Health And Community Nursing E-Book: Frameworks For Practice.
World Health Organization. (2016). Global Report On Diabetes. Http://Apps.Who.Int/Iris/Bitstream/10665/204871/1/9789241565257_Eng.Pdf.

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