7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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Course Code: 7308MED
University: Griffith University

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Country: Australia

Question:

Task
The WHO has a system of classification of countries by region and income which is described in Annex 1 of the World Health Statistics Report, 2015. (WHO, 2015) (p.160-161).
Prepare the Environmental Scan for the health workforce of the selected country using national and international health workforce references including policy and planning documents, and any relevant health workforce plans.

Answer:

Introduction
The significant rise in the global life expectancy in 20th century is due to the role played by Health system.  The improvement is continuing and that promoted the wellness of most of the world’s population (Constantin, 2014). The backbone of each health system is the health workforce. Health workforce is the lubricant that leads to smooth implementation of the health action for development of sustainable socioeconomic condition (Bowser et al., 2013). According to Constantin (2014) there is a positive correlation between the density of the health workforce and the positive health outcomes. The purpose of the assignment is to prepare a national health workforce plan for Indonesia. Indonesia is in the category of lower middle income countries as defined by World Health organisation (WHO). The rationale for the chosen country is the short fall of the health workers as identified in the latest report of by WHO (WHO, 2017). There is a need to address the issue of health workforce shortage as it is the health workers who save people’s life and improve their health. Increasing the health workforce will help the country gain enough coverage for important health interventions (Campbell et al., 2015). The report presents the environmental scan for health workforce of the selected country. It is followed by the data profile of the health workforce by category using the data provided by WHO. Further, the report identifies the critical issues to be addressed in the workforce plan using the literature review. Lastly, using the set of ten recommendations developed in the 2016 report of WHO as a framework, strategies will be developed to implement the five-year strategic workforce plan.
Indonesia health workforce
After the decentralization in Indonesia in 2001, the district governments have given the direct authority to the prioritizing sectors for the development. After this, the Human Resource for Health (HRH) planning was greatly in the hands of the regional governments. This decision resulted in the diverse funding and HRH challenges that are faced in the regions (Diana, Hollingworth & Marks, 2015). There is inadequate distribution of doctors and physicians with a density ranging from 10.36 per 100,000 populations to 53.89 per 100,000 populations in Lampung Province and North Sulawesi Province respectively as reported by World Health Organization (WHO) in global health workforce alliance report (Kurniati et al., 2015). Apart from the inequitable workforce distribution, there are issues regarding the HRH planning, recruitment and heath workforce retention which results in import from the neighboring countries.
According to Rokx, (2010) there is inadequate wages as the majority of the health workers in the public sector have second jobs resulting in poor quality of care that is associated with oversight lack and effective licensing in the private sector. In Indonesia, there is low number of physicians in the rural areas as the retention rate is less due to professional isolation and heavy workloads. Due to lack of proper developmental plans and concomitant efforts to deploy the healthcare personnel resulted in heavy world load and low retention pushing them to find jobs in the urban areas or out of the country. There is also lack of supplies and equipments that act as deterrent for the personnel to accept the job positions in the underserved and rural areas. The geographical location is the main reason for the scenario of poor health workforce. There are difficult terrains and its vast size put an enormous barrier and obstacle in the health system and distribution of the health professionals. The healthcare personnel are reluctant to go and relocate themselves in the forest locations and remote islands and results in poor communication, lack of professional practice and family amenities. The private practice is also done on low income and so it has led to the migration of the healthcare professionals to urban or high income-countries resulting in weak health workforce (Short, Marcus & Balasubramanian, 2016).
Data profile of the health workforce 
The data profile in the Indonesia health workforce shows that there is a decline in the number of healthcare personnel during the years from 2010 to 2015. According to the 2015 census, there is a decrease in the number of dental practitioners, nursing and midwifery practitioners, pharmacy practitioners, medical and non-medical practitioners and medical technologists. There is decline in the number from 38.664 in 2010 to 32.633 in 2015 and however, there was an increase in the nurses and midwifes from 267.455 to 314.347 since 2010. In the year 2015, there were 45,445 medical practitioners, 31,590 dental practitioners, pharmacy practitioners were 20,018 and nursing and midwifery practitioners were 366,845 from 2010 onwards. Non-medical and medical health practitioners were 55,962, medical technologists were 15,662 and support staff and health management were 210,665 during the year 2015 in Indonesia. This shows that there is an increase in the total number of health workforce from 65% from 428,440 in 2010 to 688,950 in 2015. However, despite of the increase in the health workforce from the year 2010 to 2015, there is a significant decrease in the number of health workers that would support the workforce in the last two years (Dussault et al., 2016).
Critical issues in health workforce 
There are many critical issues that are pertaining in Indonesia’s health workforce. The underlying issue is the human resource for health (HRH) related to policy, quality, imbalance between production and demand, planning, mal-distribution and renumeration. There is a critical level of shortage in the HRHs that would address the underlying issues that follows in the Indonesian health workforce (Rumsey et al., 2016). There is a high shortage and mal-distribution of healthcare professionals with the rural areas being understaffed. There is a highly underfunded and fragmented health system that is limited with respect to technical and allocative health system and insurance system. This results in low productivity, major shortages in the nurses, physicians and specialists and human resources that pose a challenge to the weak health workforce. The geographical imbalance is also a major issue where there is a great disparity between the urban and rural areas and the healthcare personnel are unable to meet the specific needs of the population and resulting weak workforce. In Indonesia, there is a geographical imbalance due to the vast geography that is making difficult for the doctors to be placed in deserted areas, no scope for practice and poor communication (Becker, 2017).
There is mal-distribution of human resources and the primary concern is the nurse and physician workforce as they are likely to settle in the inner suburbs due to employment opportunities, education, professional development and other amenities. There is also lack of professionalism where the healthcare personnel have non-compliance with the good healthcare protocols and practices and resulting absenteeism (Reich et al., 2016). There is uneven deployment, low motivation among the health workforce and lack of planning that is focused on the needs of the private-public capacity building. Nurses’ shortage is also a major issue where there is imbalance between the doctors to nurse ratio. In the intensive care units, there is a sharp decline in the registered nurses and in the operating rooms which reflect that the nurses who are working in this particular setting are retiring or have reduced shift hours. There is less per capita population of the healthcare workers in the Indonesian workforce who are employed across the country. The skill mix of nurse to doctor ratio has many consequences as it is a low income country. There are also services and institutional imbalances where in some places, there are too many staffs and some places are understaffed (Meliala, Hort & Trisnantoro, 2013). These issues illustrates that the Indonesian health workforce is poor due to these obstacles that have an impact on the health and well-being of the service users and also the health workforce and system as a whole. Therefore, there is a need for the proper HRH planning, implementation and maintenance and retention of the workforce in Indonesia.
Strategies relevant to implement the workplace plan
The proposed strategies for the health workforce plan is based on the recommendations of the “High-Level Commission on Health Employment and Economic Growth” published by WHO in its 2016 report  “Working for health and growth: investing in the health workforce”. These recommendations by the commission were developed to minimise the projected shortfall of the health workforce in low and lower middle income countries by 2030 (Bangdiwala et al., 2017). The WHO strategic framework relates to the changes, in the delivery of the health service, health employment, health education, and maximisation of future investment returns. The WHO recommendations to transform the health workforce cover job creation, humanitarian setting, health service organisation, financing, technology, partnership and cooperation, education and training, gender equality and rights, data information and accountability, and  international migration (WHO, 2017).
The first strategy is to introduce a new program for the health care graduates which mandate a six month of service in the rural and remote areas. This strategy will help increase the number of the health care professionals in the remote areas which is the short term outcome. The long term outcome of this strategy is elimination of gap in the distribution of health employees between rural and urban areas. This strategy includes facilitation of easy accessibility to specialist education. The compulsory contract should be supported with lucrative offers such as performance pay incentive in addition to free clothing, and accommodation.  It may limit the workers leaving rural areas soon after completion of the contract (Ghimire et al., 2013). To increase the workforce in the rural areas for long term other programmes such as the rural recruitment training can be initiated for increasing the distribution of midwives and nurses (Dickson et al., 2014).
The second strategy is to strengthen collaboration between public and private sectors and different agencies to meet the increasing demand for human resources for health. It will not create opportunities for the health workers in professional development but also increase mobilisation of resources to HRH (Kurniati et al., 2015).
The third strategy is to convert the most eligible health workers on the local and state contracts to permanent civil service status. It must also include offering a lucrative payment, so that the health workers can be retained and motivated. In addition financial and non-financial incentives should be adequately monitored and evaluated. It will assist in maintaining balance of the health workers in the public and the private sectors.  This will be the long term outcome because economic factors play a vital role in the health worker’s decision to remain in the sector (Ghimire et al., 2013). According to the study executed by Araujo et al., (2016) financial incentives lead to increase in the health worker productivity, better quality health services and decreased the informal fees of the users.
The fourth strategy is to improve the quality of care by developing stringent licensing in the private sector. It will help prevent the health workers in the public sector from undertaking second job in the private sector. Eliminating the lack of oversight will facilitate improvement of quality of care delivered by health workers in the public sector (Beers, 2015). Increasing the quality of care will consequently increase the life expectancy of people (Constantin, 2014).
Fifth strategy- Indonesia must urgently implement the global code of practice for recruiting the health professional for planning and managing the human resource for heath (HRH). Together with the personnel the country must develop guidelines for health workers working abroad and for recruiting highly qualified workers to Indonesia. The long term outcome of this strategy is the mobilisation of additional resources for HRH. In addition it will also facilitate multi-stakeholder coordination for HRH (Campbell et al., 2015). This strategy is aimed at increasing the number of migrant and local health workers (Kurniati et al., 2015).  The sixth strategy for Indonesia health workforce improvement is to increase the budget of HRH. Particularly in rural areas the service provision is becoming difficult due to the limited budget. Therefore, for this areas there is a need of increasing the allowances from the state budget (Bowser et al., 2013).
The seventh strategy is to facilitate continuing professional development of the health care workers through education and training. According to the study executed by Lee, et al., (2016) education and training has been found to motivate the health workers to reduce attrition. The training and education programme must focus on cultural competency of the health workers. It includes training on skills and local languages to meet the needs of migrant workers. Training the workers to meet the regional standards may aid in the distribution of the workers. By developing open online courses updated knowledge can be provided to the health care professionals. Consequently, it will eliminate the need for the physicians to travel overseas and eliminate the risk of losing potential candidate (Bangdiwala et al., 2017). According to Davis & Rayburn (2016) continuing professional development in any sector act as a tool for job satisfaction. Further, it was found that ongoing learning increases professionalism and retention of the midwives.
The eighth strategy is to improve supervision and management to enhance job satisfaction. It must include recognition of achievements, provision of adequate technical support, delegation, effective communication, and clear roles and responsibilities. Adherence to the code of conduct must be monitored (Piette et al., 2016). These elements are critical to care quality and performance of the health system.
Conclusion 
It is evident from the literature review that Indonesia is currently facing severe shortage of the health care workforce due to inequitable distribution of physicians and challenges related to the retention of the health workers, and quality of care due to effective licensing in the private sector. The critical challenges for HRH in Indonesia are related to policy, planning and production.  The effect of the health workforce crisis is certainly worse with increased morbidity, mortality and health care cost.  The backbone of each health system is the health workforce. This backbone must be strengthened by increasing the density of the health workforce.   Recognising these challenges to HRH and critical issues related to health workforce several strategies have been developed to strengthen the health system of Indonesia.  It includes innovative incentive strategies, improved education and training opportunities, mitigating gap in distribution of health worker between public and private sector and between rural and urban areas. The strategy of multi-stakeholder engagement will assist the country’s efforts to achieve the Universal Health Coverage. The expected outcome of the overall strategic planning is ensuring optimal quality care in Indonesia by smooth implementation of the health action.  However, there is a paucity of evidence on exact factors that contribute to health workers’ motivation, satisfaction and retention. This information is critical for development of effective workforce planning and policy in the health sector. Other than that there is a need of continued research and evaluation to strengthen the knowledge base of country specific strategies to mitigate the shortage of health workforce and decrease the inequalities in accession of health care services.
References 
Araujo, E. C., Evans, T. G., & Maeda, A. (2016). Using economic analysis in health workforce policy-making. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(1), 41-63.
Bangdiwala, S. I., Fonn, S., Okoye, O., & Tollman, S. (2017). Workforce resources for health in developing countries. Public Health Reviews, 32(1), 296.
Becker, S. M. (2017). Preparing the Public Health Workforce to Meet the Challenges of Rising Sea-Levels, Virginia. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32(S1), S68-S68.
Beers, H. W. (Ed.). (2015). Indonesia: Resources and their technological development. University Press of Kentucky.
Bowser, D., Sparkes, S. P., Mitchell, A., Bossert, T. J., B?rnighausen, T., Gedik, G., & Atun, R. (2013). Global Fund investments in human resources for health: innovation and missed opportunities for health systems strengthening. Health policy and planning, czt080.
Campbell, J., Admasu, K., Soucat, A., & Tlou, S. (2015). Maximizing the impact of community-based practitioners in the quest for universal health coverage. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 93(9), 590-590A.
Constantin, V. D. (2014). The role of the health workforce in the healthcare system. American Journal of Medical Research, 1(2), 38-38.
Davis, D. A., & Rayburn, W. F. (2016). Integrating continuing professional development with health system reform: building pillars of support. Academic Medicine, 91(1), 26-29.
Diana, A., Hollingworth, S. A., & Marks, G. C. (2015). Effects of decentralisation and health system reform on health workforce and quality?of?care in Indonesia, 1993–2007. The International journal of health planning and management, 30(1), E16-E30.
Dickson, K. E., Simen-Kapeu, A., Kinney, M. V., Huicho, L., Vesel, L., Lackritz, E., … & Mwansambo, C. (2014). Every Newborn: health-systems bottlenecks and strategies to accelerate scale-up in countries. The Lancet, 384(9941), 438-454.
Dussault, G., Badr, E., Haroen, H., Mapunda, M., Mars, A. S. T., Pritasari, K., & Cometto, G. (2016). Follow-up on commitments at the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health: Indonesia, Sudan, Tanzania. Human resources for health, 14(1), 16.
Ghimire, J., Kumal, A. B., Mahato, R. K., & Gupta, R. P. (2013). Factors associated with the motivation and de-motivation of health workforce in Nepal. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 11(2).
Kurniati, A., Rosskam, E., Afzal, M. M., Suryowinoto, T. B., & Mukti, A. G. (2015). Strengthening Indonesia’s health workforce through partnerships. public health, 129(9), 1138-1149.
Kurniati, A., Rosskam, E., Afzal, M. M., Suryowinoto, T. B., & Mukti, A. G. (2015). Strengthening Indonesia’s health workforce through partnerships. public health, 129(9), 1138-1149.
Lee, M., Newton, H., Smith, T., Crawford, M., Kepley, H., Regenstein, M., & Chen, C. (2016). The Benefits of Physician Training Programs for Rural Communities: Lessons Learned from the Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education Program. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(4), 83-90.
Meliala, A., Hort, K., & Trisnantoro, L. (2013). Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in Indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations. Social Science & Medicine, 82, 30-34.
Piette, J. D., Marinec, N., Janda, K., Morgan, E., Schantz, K., Yujra, A. C. A., … & Aikens, J. E. (2016). Structured caregiver feedback enhances engagement and impact of mobile health support: a randomized trial in a lower-middle-income country. Telemedicine and e-Health, 22(4), 261-268.
Reich, M. R., Harris, J., Ikegami, N., Maeda, A., Cashin, C., Araujo, E. C., … & Evans, T. G. (2016). Moving towards universal health coverage: lessons from 11 country studies. The Lancet, 387(10020), 811-816.
Rokx, C. (2010). New insights into the provision of health services in Indonesia: A health workforce study. World Bank Publications.
Rumsey, M., Fletcher, S. M., Thiessen, J., Gero, A., Kuruppu, N., Daly, J., … & Willetts, J. (2014). A qualitative examination of the health workforce needs during climate change disaster response in Pacific Island Countries. Human resources for health, 12(1), 9.
Short, S. D., Marcus, K., & Balasubramanian, M. (2016). Health workforce migration in the Asia Pacific: Implications for the achievement of sustainable development goals. Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management, 11(3), 58.
WHO Nepal. (2017). Who.int. Retrieved 29 May 2017, from https://www.who.int/workforcealliance/countries/npl/en/ Working for health and growth: Investing in the health workforce. (2016) (1st ed.).

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

0 Download10 Pages / 2,382 Words

Course Code: 7308MED
University: Griffith University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Question:
Discuss about the Health Workforce Planning Kenya.
 
 
Answer:
Introduction

The report has various sections which discusses strategic planning process, environmental scanning and some of the recommendations that Kenya, or most of the low income countries can use to make an effective strategic plan process. In addition to that, the report elaborates the steps and process that one can use to come up with a strategic plan process and environmental scan. Moreover, as Kenya is the chosen country to be looked at, looks at some of the health care data that the country registers as far as the health sector is concerned. Moreover, it gives a critical analysis of the data that is presented in the graph and table.
Strategic planning process
In this progression, organizers distinguish the need for a workforce plan and the reason that enable them to device such a plan of coming up with a workforce plan. In addition to that, the workforce plan that is developed must meet certain criteria in the sense that it has to articulate the reason why such a plan has been developed (Masnick, & McDonnell, 2010). In addition to that, a well work force plan must be laid out to determine whether the workforce plan ought to incorporate the whole health care system or it is just part of the part of a scheme to cover few individuals.
The first step is not like the other steps as it involves three methods that have correlations between them. On the other hand, the second step is not similar to the first one as it involves those that are in charge in overseeing the implementation of the workforce, especially in looking at the welfare of patients and their decisions. Those that are in charge of coming up with the workforce plan have to make sure that it articulates the advancement of human in relation to health and other social services related to health care such patients finances. In addition to that, the one coming up with the workforce plan have to ensure that it is in a position to factor in the changes that emanates as a result of the implementation of the workforce (Celletti, Holloway, De Cock, & Dybul, 2007). Also, advantages and disadvantages that exist and accompany the implementation of the workforce must also be considered in relation to the practice that is in place.
 
Moreover, the other step is to consider the necessary skills that are needed in the implementation of the workforce plan. These ought to selectively select in the sense that those with specialized skills in a particular field will not be shifted to other areas that can raise concerns or rather render the program a complete failure (Adano, 2008). Also, the fact that there exist quite a number of health care employees who register turnover is a factor that needs consideration is the sense that it the plan will factor in the things that makes employees turn away from work instead of retaining their jobs.
On the other hand, coming up with a definite number of employees that are deemed fit to sustain the plan is a good idea and forms part of the steps that are involved in coming up with a workforce plan. Thus, needs an endorsement and is another good idea that implementers or that that re in charge in organizing the workforce program needs to look at and make sure that it is put into practice or considered in forming the program (Hart, 2007).
Lastly, as changes are constant in every aspect or field. It is therefore crucial that the people at the helm is regards to implementing or rather putting into the practice the workforce plan are carefully chosen to include the changes that may occur in the future. The skills that suit the dynamics in health care ought to be properly put in place and those that fits current labor markets (Nancarrow, & Borthwick, 2005). Also, in making out plans, there ought to be a consideration of how future plans will likely work out, this can be in regards to administration.
After the arrangement is propelled, intermittent audit and change are basic. To empower this, the arrangement ought to be express about how achievement will be measured. What’s more, any unintended outcomes of changes should be recognized with the goal that remedial activities can be taken. Planners likewise need to set up a surveying and observing procedure so they can refresh the arrangement as indicated by the changing workforce needs of the venture or program (Rodger, & Hoffman, 2010).
It is advantageous to say that, in spite of the fact that the six stages exhibited above are in numerical request, the procedure of workforce arranging is in itself patterned and not straight. As needs be, workforce organizers may wind up returning to past strides as they work through the approach and when new data becomes exposed after the arrangement is executed (Crawford, Summerfelt, Roy, Chen, Meltzer, & Thacker, 2009).
 
Process of coming up with an environmental scan approach
A top to bottom situational investigation gives the premise to distinguishing key issues and setting program needs. Information gathered is alluded to as optional information since it was gathered by different associations for their motivations, however demonstrates helpful to Extension.
In the programming writing, this progression alludes to deciding dissected needs. To direct this progression, province groups were given a County Profile Template to help them in arranging and contrasting their information with figure out what developed as regions of concern (Po, 2014). District groups could gather key information and contrast the circumstance in their region and the state and in addition with neighboring provinces. Those information things where their region was more regrettable off than the state as well as neighboring districts were highlighted for further examination later in the filtering procedure.
Then again this progression of the procedure, region groups directed one-on-one meetings or center gatherings to get data from their countywide Advisory Leadership Council, program-particular consultative boards of trustees, and province government authorities. They found out about key partners’ need issues (Lawlor, Morgan, & Frankel, 2002). This progression recognizes the recommended needs of key partners. These partners are instrumental to the survival of an association and can assume a crucial part in securing support for automatic endeavors
 
This progression is led to permit region groups to get notification from however many nationals as could reasonably be expected. Mapping is a method for isolating the district into sensible portions to include a different gathering of natives speaking to fluctuating conclusions and interests (Alejos, Weingartner, Scharff, Ablah, Frazier, Hawley, & Wright, 2008).. It is basic that all portions of the province populace be included, especially bunches that generally may not get the chance to give their bits of knowledge and have their requirements reflected in necessities appraisal forms.
Area groups were given devices to recognizing and surveying resources of people and associations in view of the work. This appraisal filled in as an approach to recognize undiscovered individual abilities and gifts, and also offices or associations that are as of now tending to some part of the issue. Basically, this progression makes groups a piece of the arrangement as they join forces with Extension to address their own particular issues utilizing different group resources combined with the aptitude and assets from Extension (Van Greuningen, Batenburg, and Van der Velden, 20120).
Issues getting the most astounding need were those that were reliably esteemed as most vital by the great many people. Among the need issues, those accepting top need were those that were direr in nature. To a lesser degree, different contemplations were made in the prioritization procedure, for example, those for which group resources can be assembled (Nyoni, & Gbary, 2008).
Region groups must create program procedures to address the need issues in a far reaching and all-encompassing way.
Findings from policy and planning of the relevant document and recommendations
There are things that the country needs to consider before coming up with either a strategic plan. Firstly, the government and in this case Kenya need to come up with a policy that will highlight some of the problem that faces a country or that which involves healthcare (Rodger, & Hoffman, 2010). To start with, the policy must be one that takes into consideration labor market and the need to ensure that there are no health care professionals that are out without a job, while the country is of dire need of health care services.
 
In addition to that, low income countries have been on the spot in not embracing or promoting gender equality and rights in health care. A good plan is one that is able to include women both in medical in the health care workforce especially during the recruitment of health care workers. In addition to that, there ought not to be gender biases during employment or promotion of health care officials (Nyoni, Gbary, Awases, Ndecki, & Chatora, 2014). In Kenya, still, the ratio of males to women in health care is high making it necessary for that bridge to be lowered to represent gender equity.
Kenya has several medical training and education of higher learning that train doctors, nurses and other health care professional. In addition to that, the country has a one year internship program that aims at making sure that that the medics they produce are well trained and competent for the job market. In that line, a workforce plan must be one that promote lifelong training and which produces competent health care professionals.
Moreover, with the advancement in technology, it is penetrating the health care sector at an alarming rate. Technology faster communication, increases efficiency of tasks and reduces human errors. Thus, there is also need for a future plans to be in line with the use of modern technology which will not only be useful to health care professionals, but also to customers who can now be able to access medical services in a more efficient manner (Bloor, K., Maynard, Hall, Ulmann, Farhauer, & Lindgren, 2003) . For instance,  opening a portal for patients to book appointments for treatment, consultations or medical checkup.
Conclusion
In a low income countries, developing a workforce plan is essential and needs inclusion of an environmental Scan approach in coming up with such a plan. There are various as steps that are involved in coming up with a workforce plan or planning for the same. Firstly, one has to come up with a workforce plan. In addition to that, the next step involves mapping service change. This will be followed with understanding the availability of the workforce that is required and coming and then coming up with a plan. Lastly, one has to monitor the implementation of the plan. In Kenya, is the chosen country for this report, environmental scan approach is essential before coming up with a plan. It also entails various steps. In analyzing Kenya as a country of low income, there are various findings that one can deduce from them in regards and form recommendations to that effect which will act as a guiding tool for their program.
 
References
World Health Organization. (2006). The world health report: 2006: working together for health.
Masnick, K., & McDonnell, G. (2010). A model linking clinical workforce skill mix planning to health and health care dynamics. Human Resources for Health, 8(1), 11.
Collins, S. K., & Collins, K. S. (2007). Changing workforce demographics necessitates succession planning in health care. The health care manager, 26(4), 318-325.
Bloor, K., Maynard, A., Hall, J., Ulmann, P., Farhauer, O., & Lindgren, B. (2003). Planning human resources in health care: towards an economic approach: an international comparative review. Canadian Health Services Research Foundation= Fondation canadienne de la recherche sur les Services de santé.
Hart, K. A. (2007). The aging workforce: Implications for health care organizations. Nursing Economics, 25(2), 101.
Nancarrow, S. A., & Borthwick, A. M. (2005). Dynamic professional boundaries in the healthcare workforce. Sociology of health & illness, 27(7), 897-919.
Rodger, S., & J. Hoffman, S. (2010). Where in the world is interprofessional education? A global environmental scan. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 24(5), 479-491.
Crawford, C. A. G., Summerfelt, W. T., Roy, K., Chen, Z. A., Meltzer, D. O., & Thacker, S. B. (2009). Perspectives on public health workforce research. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 15(6), S5-S15.
Celletti, F., Holloway, J., De Cock, K. M., & Dybul, M. (2007). Rapid expansion of the health workforce in response to the HIV epidemic. The New England journal of medicine, 357(24), 2510.
Adano, U. (2008). The health worker recruitment and deployment process in Kenya: an emergency hiring program. Human Resources for Health, 6(1), 19.
World Health Organization. (2007). Task shifting: rational redistribution of tasks among health workforce teams: global recommendations and guidelines.
Emmerichs, R. M., Marcum, C. Y., & Robbert, A. A. (2014). An Operational Process for Working Force Planning.
Al-Sawai, A., & Al-Shishtawy, M. M. (2015). Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman. Sultan Qaboos University medical journal, 15(1), e27.
Po, T. (2014). Getting it Right: A workforce planning approach.
Lawlor, D. A., Morgan, K., & Frankel, S. (2002). Caring for the health of the public: cross sectional study of the activities of UK public health departments. Public health, 116(2), 102-105.
Alejos, A., Weingartner, A., Scharff, D. P., Ablah, E., Frazier, L., Hawley, S. R., … & Wright, K. S. (2008). Ensuring the success of local public health workforce assessments: using a participatory-based research approach with a rural population. Public health, 122(12), 1447-1455.
Van Greuningen, M., Batenburg, R.S. and Van der Velden, L.F., 2012. Ten years of health workforce planning in the Netherlands: a tentative evaluation of GP planning as an example. Human Resources for Health, 10(1), p.21.
Tomblin Murphy, G., MacKenzie, A., Alder, R., Birch, S., Kephart, G., & O’Brien-Pallas, L. (2009). An applied simulation model for estimating the supply of and requirements for registered nurses based on population health needs. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 10(4), 240-251.
Nyoni, J., & Gbary, A. (2008). Policies and plans for human resources for health: guidelines for countries in the WHO African region. WHO Regional Office for Africa.
Nyoni, J., Gbary, A., Awases, M., Ndecki, P., & Chatora, R. (2014). World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa. Policies and Plans for Human Resources for Health: Guidelines for countries in the WHO African region.
 
 
 
 
 

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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7308MED Health Workforce Planning And Innovation

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Question:
Discuss about the Health Workforce Planning Kenya.
 
 
Answer:
Introduction

The report has various sections which discusses strategic planning process, environmental scanning and some of the recommendations that Kenya, or most of the low income countries can use to make an effective strategic plan process. In addition to that, the report elaborates the steps and process that one can use to come up with a strategic plan process and environmental scan. Moreover, as Kenya is the chosen country to be looked at, looks at some of the health care data that the country registers as far as the health sector is concerned. Moreover, it gives a critical analysis of the data that is presented in the graph and table.
Strategic planning process
In this progression, organizers distinguish the need for a workforce plan and the reason that enable them to device such a plan of coming up with a workforce plan. In addition to that, the workforce plan that is developed must meet certain criteria in the sense that it has to articulate the reason why such a plan has been developed (Masnick, & McDonnell, 2010). In addition to that, a well work force plan must be laid out to determine whether the workforce plan ought to incorporate the whole health care system or it is just part of the part of a scheme to cover few individuals.
The first step is not like the other steps as it involves three methods that have correlations between them. On the other hand, the second step is not similar to the first one as it involves those that are in charge in overseeing the implementation of the workforce, especially in looking at the welfare of patients and their decisions. Those that are in charge of coming up with the workforce plan have to make sure that it articulates the advancement of human in relation to health and other social services related to health care such patients finances. In addition to that, the one coming up with the workforce plan have to ensure that it is in a position to factor in the changes that emanates as a result of the implementation of the workforce (Celletti, Holloway, De Cock, & Dybul, 2007). Also, advantages and disadvantages that exist and accompany the implementation of the workforce must also be considered in relation to the practice that is in place.
 
Moreover, the other step is to consider the necessary skills that are needed in the implementation of the workforce plan. These ought to selectively select in the sense that those with specialized skills in a particular field will not be shifted to other areas that can raise concerns or rather render the program a complete failure (Adano, 2008). Also, the fact that there exist quite a number of health care employees who register turnover is a factor that needs consideration is the sense that it the plan will factor in the things that makes employees turn away from work instead of retaining their jobs.
On the other hand, coming up with a definite number of employees that are deemed fit to sustain the plan is a good idea and forms part of the steps that are involved in coming up with a workforce plan. Thus, needs an endorsement and is another good idea that implementers or that that re in charge in organizing the workforce program needs to look at and make sure that it is put into practice or considered in forming the program (Hart, 2007).
Lastly, as changes are constant in every aspect or field. It is therefore crucial that the people at the helm is regards to implementing or rather putting into the practice the workforce plan are carefully chosen to include the changes that may occur in the future. The skills that suit the dynamics in health care ought to be properly put in place and those that fits current labor markets (Nancarrow, & Borthwick, 2005). Also, in making out plans, there ought to be a consideration of how future plans will likely work out, this can be in regards to administration.
After the arrangement is propelled, intermittent audit and change are basic. To empower this, the arrangement ought to be express about how achievement will be measured. What’s more, any unintended outcomes of changes should be recognized with the goal that remedial activities can be taken. Planners likewise need to set up a surveying and observing procedure so they can refresh the arrangement as indicated by the changing workforce needs of the venture or program (Rodger, & Hoffman, 2010).
It is advantageous to say that, in spite of the fact that the six stages exhibited above are in numerical request, the procedure of workforce arranging is in itself patterned and not straight. As needs be, workforce organizers may wind up returning to past strides as they work through the approach and when new data becomes exposed after the arrangement is executed (Crawford, Summerfelt, Roy, Chen, Meltzer, & Thacker, 2009).
 
Process of coming up with an environmental scan approach
A top to bottom situational investigation gives the premise to distinguishing key issues and setting program needs. Information gathered is alluded to as optional information since it was gathered by different associations for their motivations, however demonstrates helpful to Extension.
In the programming writing, this progression alludes to deciding dissected needs. To direct this progression, province groups were given a County Profile Template to help them in arranging and contrasting their information with figure out what developed as regions of concern (Po, 2014). District groups could gather key information and contrast the circumstance in their region and the state and in addition with neighboring provinces. Those information things where their region was more regrettable off than the state as well as neighboring districts were highlighted for further examination later in the filtering procedure.
Then again this progression of the procedure, region groups directed one-on-one meetings or center gatherings to get data from their countywide Advisory Leadership Council, program-particular consultative boards of trustees, and province government authorities. They found out about key partners’ need issues (Lawlor, Morgan, & Frankel, 2002). This progression recognizes the recommended needs of key partners. These partners are instrumental to the survival of an association and can assume a crucial part in securing support for automatic endeavors
 
This progression is led to permit region groups to get notification from however many nationals as could reasonably be expected. Mapping is a method for isolating the district into sensible portions to include a different gathering of natives speaking to fluctuating conclusions and interests (Alejos, Weingartner, Scharff, Ablah, Frazier, Hawley, & Wright, 2008).. It is basic that all portions of the province populace be included, especially bunches that generally may not get the chance to give their bits of knowledge and have their requirements reflected in necessities appraisal forms.
Area groups were given devices to recognizing and surveying resources of people and associations in view of the work. This appraisal filled in as an approach to recognize undiscovered individual abilities and gifts, and also offices or associations that are as of now tending to some part of the issue. Basically, this progression makes groups a piece of the arrangement as they join forces with Extension to address their own particular issues utilizing different group resources combined with the aptitude and assets from Extension (Van Greuningen, Batenburg, and Van der Velden, 20120).
Issues getting the most astounding need were those that were reliably esteemed as most vital by the great many people. Among the need issues, those accepting top need were those that were direr in nature. To a lesser degree, different contemplations were made in the prioritization procedure, for example, those for which group resources can be assembled (Nyoni, & Gbary, 2008).
Region groups must create program procedures to address the need issues in a far reaching and all-encompassing way.
Findings from policy and planning of the relevant document and recommendations
There are things that the country needs to consider before coming up with either a strategic plan. Firstly, the government and in this case Kenya need to come up with a policy that will highlight some of the problem that faces a country or that which involves healthcare (Rodger, & Hoffman, 2010). To start with, the policy must be one that takes into consideration labor market and the need to ensure that there are no health care professionals that are out without a job, while the country is of dire need of health care services.
 
In addition to that, low income countries have been on the spot in not embracing or promoting gender equality and rights in health care. A good plan is one that is able to include women both in medical in the health care workforce especially during the recruitment of health care workers. In addition to that, there ought not to be gender biases during employment or promotion of health care officials (Nyoni, Gbary, Awases, Ndecki, & Chatora, 2014). In Kenya, still, the ratio of males to women in health care is high making it necessary for that bridge to be lowered to represent gender equity.
Kenya has several medical training and education of higher learning that train doctors, nurses and other health care professional. In addition to that, the country has a one year internship program that aims at making sure that that the medics they produce are well trained and competent for the job market. In that line, a workforce plan must be one that promote lifelong training and which produces competent health care professionals.
Moreover, with the advancement in technology, it is penetrating the health care sector at an alarming rate. Technology faster communication, increases efficiency of tasks and reduces human errors. Thus, there is also need for a future plans to be in line with the use of modern technology which will not only be useful to health care professionals, but also to customers who can now be able to access medical services in a more efficient manner (Bloor, K., Maynard, Hall, Ulmann, Farhauer, & Lindgren, 2003) . For instance,  opening a portal for patients to book appointments for treatment, consultations or medical checkup.
Conclusion
In a low income countries, developing a workforce plan is essential and needs inclusion of an environmental Scan approach in coming up with such a plan. There are various as steps that are involved in coming up with a workforce plan or planning for the same. Firstly, one has to come up with a workforce plan. In addition to that, the next step involves mapping service change. This will be followed with understanding the availability of the workforce that is required and coming and then coming up with a plan. Lastly, one has to monitor the implementation of the plan. In Kenya, is the chosen country for this report, environmental scan approach is essential before coming up with a plan. It also entails various steps. In analyzing Kenya as a country of low income, there are various findings that one can deduce from them in regards and form recommendations to that effect which will act as a guiding tool for their program.
 
References
World Health Organization. (2006). The world health report: 2006: working together for health.
Masnick, K., & McDonnell, G. (2010). A model linking clinical workforce skill mix planning to health and health care dynamics. Human Resources for Health, 8(1), 11.
Collins, S. K., & Collins, K. S. (2007). Changing workforce demographics necessitates succession planning in health care. The health care manager, 26(4), 318-325.
Bloor, K., Maynard, A., Hall, J., Ulmann, P., Farhauer, O., & Lindgren, B. (2003). Planning human resources in health care: towards an economic approach: an international comparative review. Canadian Health Services Research Foundation= Fondation canadienne de la recherche sur les Services de santé.
Hart, K. A. (2007). The aging workforce: Implications for health care organizations. Nursing Economics, 25(2), 101.
Nancarrow, S. A., & Borthwick, A. M. (2005). Dynamic professional boundaries in the healthcare workforce. Sociology of health & illness, 27(7), 897-919.
Rodger, S., & J. Hoffman, S. (2010). Where in the world is interprofessional education? A global environmental scan. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 24(5), 479-491.
Crawford, C. A. G., Summerfelt, W. T., Roy, K., Chen, Z. A., Meltzer, D. O., & Thacker, S. B. (2009). Perspectives on public health workforce research. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 15(6), S5-S15.
Celletti, F., Holloway, J., De Cock, K. M., & Dybul, M. (2007). Rapid expansion of the health workforce in response to the HIV epidemic. The New England journal of medicine, 357(24), 2510.
Adano, U. (2008). The health worker recruitment and deployment process in Kenya: an emergency hiring program. Human Resources for Health, 6(1), 19.
World Health Organization. (2007). Task shifting: rational redistribution of tasks among health workforce teams: global recommendations and guidelines.
Emmerichs, R. M., Marcum, C. Y., & Robbert, A. A. (2014). An Operational Process for Working Force Planning.
Al-Sawai, A., & Al-Shishtawy, M. M. (2015). Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman. Sultan Qaboos University medical journal, 15(1), e27.
Po, T. (2014). Getting it Right: A workforce planning approach.
Lawlor, D. A., Morgan, K., & Frankel, S. (2002). Caring for the health of the public: cross sectional study of the activities of UK public health departments. Public health, 116(2), 102-105.
Alejos, A., Weingartner, A., Scharff, D. P., Ablah, E., Frazier, L., Hawley, S. R., … & Wright, K. S. (2008). Ensuring the success of local public health workforce assessments: using a participatory-based research approach with a rural population. Public health, 122(12), 1447-1455.
Van Greuningen, M., Batenburg, R.S. and Van der Velden, L.F., 2012. Ten years of health workforce planning in the Netherlands: a tentative evaluation of GP planning as an example. Human Resources for Health, 10(1), p.21.
Tomblin Murphy, G., MacKenzie, A., Alder, R., Birch, S., Kephart, G., & O’Brien-Pallas, L. (2009). An applied simulation model for estimating the supply of and requirements for registered nurses based on population health needs. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 10(4), 240-251.
Nyoni, J., & Gbary, A. (2008). Policies and plans for human resources for health: guidelines for countries in the WHO African region. WHO Regional Office for Africa.
Nyoni, J., Gbary, A., Awases, M., Ndecki, P., & Chatora, R. (2014). World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa. Policies and Plans for Human Resources for Health: Guidelines for countries in the WHO African region.
 
 
 
 
 

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