92638 Foundation Of Australian Healthcare System

92638 Foundation Of Australian Healthcare System

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92638 Foundation Of Australian Healthcare System

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92638 Foundation Of Australian Healthcare System

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Course Code: 92638
University: University Of Technology Sydney

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Country: Australia

The following are a list of readings which may be selected as the topic for your Assessment 2 – Viva Voce. Australia is a multi-cultural society with a long history of migration from most corners of the world. Post-war migration (1945-1980) saw the urban landscape of the major cities change, with hundreds of thousands of people seeking a better life. In the 21st century many of those first migrants are now entering aged care facilities. This ispresenting the aged care sector with some unique challenges. Firstly, there is the issue of language and culture. Many migrants learnt English as a second or third language, while others never developed more than a basic knowledge. As the elderly lose their abilities to communicate, the language they are less familiar with, deteriorates first. As a result, many elderly residents will already have entered aged care facilities with a reduced ability tocommunicate in English.
Aged care residents of a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background are the fastest growing group of elderly in Australia. Approximately 20% of the current population aged over 65 was born in a non-English-speaking country (Drabsch: 2004). By 2011, the number of seniors of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds was 653,800, according to Aged & Community Services Australia (ACSA). This is a growth rate of 66% over a 15 year period, compared with only 23% for the Australian born population (ACSA: 2006). By 2026, this number ispredicted to be almost 1 million elderly (ACSA: 2006).
Over 120 facilities in NSW are ethnically or culturally specific and support residents with distinct social, cultural, linguistic and spiritual needs. This represents approximately 1 in 8 aged care facilities in NSW. Those residents who do not enter an ethnic-specific facility often form a so-called ‘ethnic cluster’ in which a few people with a shared language or culture will be located in a facility with people from other backgrounds. If there are enough residents of a certain language, bilingual staff may be employed as assistants-in-nursing. It is an ad hoc process. Interestingly, not all CALD residents want to be with people of their own culture and language. There are many different ways in which a person is expected to behave culturally and this could be problematic at an advanced age. Generally, however, most residents of a certain ethnic or religious background will want to live amongst people with whom they have cultural or linguistic affinity.
Care staff are often from lower socio-economic backgrounds. They may be of non-English-speaking background with limited work opportunities. English may be their first language. However, they may be poorly educated, with unresolved reading and writing problems. Nevertheless, in Sydney, the majority of care staff are of non-Englishspeaking background.
In 2011, I was employed as an English language teacher by a private training company. I was contracted to provide training to staff at an ethnic-specific aged care facility in the western Sydney suburb of Cabramatta. The facility was Eastern Orthodox and the predominant language was Russian. (SEE TABLE B) The staff had varying levels ofEnglish language ability. (SEE TABLE C) 
Whilst it was important to be able to communicate with residents in Russian (the lingua franca of the facility), staff were also expected to have a working knowledge of English in order to fulfil their reporting requirements as aged care workers. Increasingly, care staff are undertaking more complicated roles and having greater responsibilities. Therefore, the need to be able to communicate effectively with allied health professionals and other interested parties, is becoming more critical
Cabramatta is a classic example of Australian migration and settlement history. Originally settled by Englishspeaking Australians, they were followed by post-war migrants from Italy, Yugoslavia and other European countries. One small wave of refugees and migrants came from Russian-speaking enclaves on the Chinese border. They had settled there after the Bolshevik revolution of 1918 and from the late 1950s were expelled from China asa result of Sino-Soviet tensions. It was this community which established the ethnic-specific facility where I was contracted to work. In the late 1970s, thousands of desperate ‘boat people’ – refugees fleeing Communist Vietnam were generously settled in Australia and many moved to Cabramatta. Today, the suburb is a vibrant and changing mix of faces and languages from Asia and Europe, Africa and the Middle East. (SEE TABLE A)
This example represents an interesting challenge facing the aged care sector in modern, multicultural and, increasingly, ageing Australia.
The facility in Cabramatta is in the process of expanding its service by building a state-of-the-art 24-bed high-care unit and a 24-bed secure dementia unit. However, it is facing a significant challenge in identifying and providing for future residents and staff for three main reasons:
• The cultural and religious backgrounds of future residents will shift from Russian (or Slavic-speaking) to Vietnamese and Chinese. Demographic models suggest that there may not be enough local Slavicspeaking residents to make the new 48-bed expansion profitable.• Factors such as higher house prices and higher rents are changing the socio-economic mix of local people. Young, double-income families are finding Cabramatta still relatively affordable. Low-income workers, the backbone of the aged care workforce, may find it difficult to live and work within the area.• Demographic phenomena associated with changing educational expectations amongst young Australian-born people and changing migration patterns, mean that staff with appropriate language and educational skills may be difficult to find in the near future. 
The new building has almost been completed. As a language and literacy consultant specialising in aged care, I have been contracted to present a report offering a business plan that will best serve the changing local community, maximise the investment return of the new unit, whilst ensuring that the current profile of this unique facility is not jeopardised.

The old age care facility Cabramatta is in its process of expanding its facility with new buildings comprised with 24 high care beds and 24 dementia care beds. At the same time, the local community along with residents is changing that will have strong impact on new workforce selection. In order to be aligned with these changes is local community and culture the workforce selection process of Cabaramatta has to be more diverse, flexible and strategic.
The purpose of this proposal is to present a report offering a new business plan for this care facility that will help them to serve the changing local population while maximising the return on investment from the new extended facility.
The social and cultural background of the local community is changing from Russian or Slavic speaking to Vietnamese and Chinese. The lower income community is the workforce base of this aged care facility (Thomson 2017). The increasing lifestyle expenses and accommodation is lowering this community and weakening the labour resource. Appointing a liaison officer for recruitment and diversity management in healthcare workforce can make some essential change in business.
Project objectives are:

Recruiting Liaison Officer for recruitment and diversity management
Finding practical solution for the social and cultural changes
Recruiting liable and adequate workforce for new extended facility
Cost benefit analysis of potential applicable procedure
Maintain the stable service quality while ensuring profitable ROI from new unit

Literature review
Aged healthcare system and emigrants
In aged care healthcare system of Australia, both client and workforce are changing in terms of their ethnicity, socio-cultural background, nationality origins and others. Currently more than 20% of the aged population in Australia are born from non It English speaking country. The number of these non-English speaking aged peoples who are more than 65 years old is round 653800 (Harper 2017). This number is increasing every day. As a result, the growth rate of this community is increased by 66% from the last 15 years. This growth rate is changing the entire scenario of the healthcare demands and potential workforce in healthcare facilities significantly (Richards 2018).
The Australian Government and many Non Government Organisations have taken many affective initiations to handle the health condition of this huge number of immigrant community. Currently, more than 120 healthcare facilities in New South Wales are providing service to distinct social, cultural communities. This increasing population of diverse communities has started from 1945 to 1980 time-zone (Carabetta 2017). It was an ultimate result of post-war economical crisis in many countries. As an effect of Post-war migration, from that period, thousands of immigrants are coming and filling semi-urban and urban landscape of Australia. Another essential factor of these community is, 50% to 70% people do not have enough education for effective communication. The major reason behind this is that, most of them are completely unable to communicate in English. Some of them can, however they can not write English properly (Garcia et al. 2017).
Community and cultural factor in Cabramatta
The locality of Cabramatta is a classic example of high migration and settlement. During the post world war situation huge number of Latin, people from Yugoslavia, Russian, Chinese and Vietnamese came and settled in the locality. Hover, before the  21st century the majority of the local community was Slavic speaking or Russian people (Lin et al. 2017). With the changing market price, global economy and expenses of local population the national, social and cultural background of the community is changing rapidly.
Roles and responsibilities of Liaison officer
Liaison officer is a person who liaises between two parties through involving within their communication. The duty of a liaison officer is to help both of the parties to understand each other properly and to build up the effective collaboration and cooperation.  More than 32% of total international business collaboration is executing with the support of Liaison officer (Carabetta 2017). A liaison officer is also appointed for recruitment system where the business is dealing with diverse workforce culture. From the selection of candidates to develop a appropriate induction phase for the newly recruited employees, it is the responsibility of a liaison officer to prepare the strong as well as flexible workforce that can deal with people from diverse social, cultural and financial background. When it comes to diversity management Liaison officer can solve more than 80% of discrimination and other issues within the workplace through Affective, selection, training, induction, communication and motivation.
The Recommendation
The aged care facility of Cabramatta has a strong workforce who are competent enough to deal with their existing aged residents. However, in their new extension building, they require an efficient caregiver who can interact with the new population efficiently. The social and cultural background of the local community is changing from Russian or Slavic speaking to Vietnamese and Chinese (Reid et al. 2018). The lower income community is the workforce base of this aged care facility. Therefore, decreasing number of this community is limiting the opportunity to choose appropriate workforce from the local labour pool. The new emigrants who are filling the larger section the Cabramatta do not have enough education and fluency in English to handle the aged residents from medium to high background.
Task of Consulting agency
An consultation agency has to develop a proper management plan including the recruitment and resource allocation procedure to sustain the profit margin of the aged-care organisation. The aim of this consultancy agency is to support their client to whom they are currently offering a new business plan for this care facility that will help them to serve the changing local population while maximising the return on investment from the new extended facility. Therefore, the following list of deliverable has been  developed in order to keep track of the progress and supporting requirements:
A suitable action plan is to be developed to recruit new workforce
The action plan will ensure the quality management in accordance with the present service quality
The recruitment system will be delivered to a responsible person who can find the cogitative workforce for the company
The recruitment process should ensure that the newly recruited employees would maintain a healthy, cooperative and friendly relationship within the culturally diverse work environment
In order to achieve the above mention targets both the Cabramatta aged care facility and the consultant agency has to work cooperatively under certain guideline that can make proper synchronisation of workflow and information integrity within them. Initially they have to conduct an internal research on their existing human resource in order to find the appropriate measurements that are required for selection of employees (Karl, Ramos and Kühn 2017). The organisation has to inform the liaison officer about their vision, performance criteria and expectation from the employees, which will allow the recruiter to develop the recruitment planning. Another essential factor is funding or financial estimation. For this, multiple communication sessions have to be conducted within both of the organisations. The following section will describe the step by step method to achieve the predetermined goals:

Communication to initiate collaboration procedure and to debvelop the bluepring of schedule
Prepare the existing workforce for the new changes due to the new extended service and upcoming workforce
Recruiting a Liaison Officer for workforce recruitment and to train them for diverse and healthy work culture
Improving coordination within the agency and the aged care organisation through the efficient service of Liaison officer
Recruit new and competent workforce from local labour pool
Train the work force to increase their adjustability and acceptability
Improve the rewarding policy to motivate all the existing and new employees

Australian Health care system and the challenge brief
The healthcare system in Australia is currently going through a serious condition regarding the indigenous healthcare planning and policies. Agencies like national Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO), Indigenous Allied Health Australia (IAHA), Australian Aboriginal Health Foundation (AAHF) and several non-government bodies like Secretariat of National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care (SNAICC) are working collaboratively to improve the health quality and decrease the mortality rate of Aboriginal and Trait Strait Islander people (Green et al. 2017). In this situation, the cultural gap between the caregivers and the indigenous people as well as lack of education and health awareness the effectiveness of these collaborative activities are being minimised. Movements like “Close the gap” are also held in order to educate the indigenous community and increase their involvement in healthcare facilities as a caregiver.
The most significant factor within this situation is the practice of healthcare service provider organisation and the social work associations like the aged people. The appropriate collaboration and holistic development approach of these private organisations can lead the situation towards positive outcomes (Azzopard et al. 2018). Institution as Cabramatta aged care facility can be good example for contributing their service to the indigenous community by offering them job role in their organisation as per their expertise.   
Implication for indigenous health care
As a private organisation, Cabramatta Aged Care organisation has many opportunities to help the indigenous community by allowing them to join in the organisational workforce. It will also improve the social responsibility of the organisation. On the other hand, this kind of social activity can improve image of the organisation towards the local and regional upper middle class community. It will enable them to pursue the healthcare service provided by the organisation (Livingston et al. 2017). Apart from that, Cabramatta Aged Care can also provide special care to the local indigenous community as a part of holistic health care providing. It will also allow them to understand the most essential factors and regulators in a culturally diverse workforce.  
Benefits, risk and cost management





Improving the workforce structure

Investment in Recruitment and training of the workforce

Increased workforce can sustain the service quality and even can improve

Defective activity plan can increase the annual expenditure for improvement

Recruiting new employees from indigenous community

Investigating the potential labour pool and selecting the appropriate community

Increased company image in the potential service receiver through social responsibility

Unintentional breach of any government occupational or community based regulation can cause severe loss.

Engaging in Indigenous healthcare service providing

Increase the strength of the overall workforce in terms of quality and quantity

Expanded service radius and verity

Unintentional breach of any government occupational or community based regulation can cause severe loss.

From the above discussion it can be concluded that in order to be aligned with these changes is local community and culture the workforce selection process of Cabaramatta has to be more diverse, flexible and strategic. The increasing lifestyle expenses and accommodation is lowering this community and weakening the labour resource. Appointing a liaison officer for recruitment and diversity management in healthcare workforce can make some essential change in business. Apart from that, Cabramatta Aged Care can also provide special care to the local indigenous community as a part of holistic health care providing. It will also allow them to understand the most essential factors and regulators in a culturally diverse workforce.  
Azzopardi, P.S., Sawyer, S.M., Carlin, J.B., Degenhardt, L., Brown, N., Brown, A.D. and Patton, G.C., 2018. Health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia: a systematic synthesis of population data. The Lancet, 391(10122), pp.766-782.
Carabetta, G., 2017. Alternative Dispute Resolution in Public, Essential and Emergency Services.
Garcia de Blakeley, M., Ford, R. and Casey, L., 2017. Second language anxiety among Latino American immigrants in Australia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 20(7), pp.759-772.
Green, M., Cunningham, J., O’Connell, D. and Garvey, G., 2017. Improving outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with cancer requires a systematic approach to understanding patients’ experiences of care. Australian Health Review, 41(2), pp.231-233.
Harper, M., 2017. Moving Out and Moving On? Emigration from Scotland to Australia in the Twentieth Century. In Emigrants and Historians: Essays in Honour of Eric Richards. Wakefield Press.
Karl, U., Ramos, A.C. and Kühn, B., 2017. Older migrants in Luxembourg–care preferences for old age between family and professional services. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(2), pp.270-286.
Lin, X., Bryant, C., Boldero, J. and Dow, B., 2017. Older people’s relationships with their adult children in multicultural Australia: a comparison of Australian-born people and Chinese immigrants. Ageing & Society, 37(10), pp.2103-2127.
Livingston, G., Sommerlad, A., Orgeta, V., Costafreda, S.G., Huntley, J., Ames, D., Ballard, C., Banerjee, S., Burns, A., Cohen-Mansfield, J. and Cooper, C., 2017. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care. The Lancet, 390(10113), pp.2673-2734.
Reid, A., Merler, E., Peters, S., Jayasinghe, N., Bressan, V., Franklin, P., Brims, F., de Klerk, N.H. and Musk, A.W., 2018. Migration and work in postwar Australia: mortality profile comparisons between Australian and Italian workers exposed to blue asbestos at Wittenoom. Occup Environ Med, 75(1), pp.29-36.
Richards, E., 2018. Islands of exit. In The genesis of international mass migration. Manchester University Press.
Thomson, A., 2017. ‘My wayward heart’: homesickness, longing and the return of Vietnamese post-war immigrants to Australia. In Emigrant homecomings. Manchester University Press.

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