96337 Foundations Of The Australian Healthcare System

96337 Foundations Of The Australian Healthcare System

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96337 Foundations Of The Australian Healthcare System

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96337 Foundations Of The Australian Healthcare System

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Course Code: 96337
University: University Of Technology Sydney

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Country: Australia

Question:

1- An email response to the client in which students will re-frame the client challenge, describeyour understanding of the challenge and your initial approach to the problem.which i have already done and got marks also. i am uploading it as well to see what is next i want in the assignment.
 
2- An annotated bibliography of four sources related to the problem brief designed to form anattachment to your email response to the client .

Answer:

Attitude and behavior changes among gay and bisexual men after use of rapid home HIV tests to screen sexual partners.
According to the authors, Rapid HIV testing is now available in a form that can be self-administered, and these can be bought out-side clinical settings as home testing (HT) kits. The kits can be used for performing a test on a possible individuals who would be the sexual partners before having a sexual intercourse. The researchers were responsible for providing a three month supply of such HT kits to those men who have been reported to have indulged in sexual intercourse with multiple gay partners and have no or little condom use at the time of having anal intercourse. The study was undertaken in New York City, and the participants were recruited through web sites or in person. Candidates were who wereeither HIV-positive, or in a monogamous relationship, or not interested to use the HT kits were excluded from the study. A bag was provided to them having 16 HT kits, a set of important instructions on their usage, a phamplet containing a list of community resources and helpline number for assistance. The participants were considered for an in-depth interview after three months that was conducted with a clinical psychologist. The aim was to explore in depth the experiences of the participants in relation to use of thee HT kits with their sexual partners.
The individuals taking part in the study were found to use the test kits with their respective partners in almost a hundred occasions. By the completion of the research, half of the total numer of participants indicated major changes in the behaviours and/or attitudes pertaining to their sexual behaviour. These behavioural changes that were reported in their attitudes and behaviours mainly encompassed increased knowledge and consciousness of the diverse risk HIV infection presents, changes in the choice of partner, enhanced quality of discussion of HIV safety measures, and increased consciousness and awareness of partner thinking. When individuals get easy and regular access to HT kits, chances are present that the risk-reduction strategy for gay men might be reduced to a significant level. Th regular use of HT kits would possible lead to changes in sexual behaviour beyond the particular forms of sexual encounters. The chance that free and easy access to HT kits for gay men having no specialised training is possible to influence the overall thought process of gay men. The feelings about safety precautions and testing for HIV can be changed for the better if HT kits are provided. For sexually active gay individuals who have inconsistent or rare condom use, access to HT would change the course of evaluation of risk and HIV testing. Such kits would guide them to value the HIV-negative status since they would be in a position to reaffirm the same with novice form of testing opportunity. HT kits act a key potential vehicle that can be considered for a user-directed and autonomous method of self-assessment.
Preparedness for use of the rapid result HIV self?test by gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a mixed methods exploratory study among MSM and those involved in HIV prevention and care. 
The aim of the research was to study the nature of preparedness and awareness and for the HIV self-test among men who have sex with men (MSM) along with the individual who have a role in HIV care and prevention. The objectives were to study the attributes related to level of awareness for HIV testing and explore the factors associated with a proactive attitude to getting HIV test done. The factors that acted as facilitators for the use of rapid result HIV self-test were also assessed. The study had a mixed methods exploratory research design. Data collection was both quantitative and qualitative in nature and analysis was done in parallel. Quantitative data was in the form of cross-sectional bar-based survey data. This was collected from MSM through a self-completed questionnaire and oral fluid specimen collection (n = 999). Qualitative data was collected, and thematic analysis was done after conducting 12 expert focus groups (n= 55). The study included men who were gay, community organizations, National Health Service (NHS) staff, activists and entrepreneurs.
The study indicated that self-test awareness was moderate among the MSM. Increased awareness had a dependence on increased education level and previous history of having sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. The researchers developed the idea that the levels of acceptability of rapid HIV self-testing was high. The self-testing method was proved to be a discreet, accessible, convenient form of HIV testing. The perceptions and ideas of the participants indicated that self-tests put a low burden to healthcare services handling HIV prevalence among gay couples. It is to be noted that some trace amount of ambivalence was also noted towards self-testing, implying that all form of opportunities is to be considered for engaging with wider health issues, health care services, and different levels of determinants of risk. The inference drawn from the study was that self-testing is a proper opportunity for reduction of chief barriers to HIV testing. Prevention of this disease and better care access can be achieved through this method. Self-testing is a representation of a new development within the care tool kit. Such form of testing kit has the ability to act as a transformative technology that is an integrated element of HIV care system. Possible vulnerabilities of certain groups of MSM populations and social isolation are to be considered when digital technologies are accepted widely for this population if testing opportunities are to be increased further.
Rapid HIV testing is highly acceptable and preferred among high-risk gay and bisexual men after implementation in Sydney sexual health clinics. PLoS One, 10(4), p.e0123814.
As highlighted by the authors, Rapid HIV testing (RHT) has been ingrained in the recent past in a number of countries; however, it is still a new concept in Australia. The researchers considered undertaking a thorough assessment of the rates of acceptability of RHT among the bisexual, gay and other men having sex with men (GBM) against the emergence of access to RHT in different sexual health clinics in Sydney. The study was undertaken with a questionnaire to be filled up by GBM afore and after the result of RHT that is carried out through collecting finger-prick blood. The experiences of the participants were compared suitably with the conventional HIV testing (CHT) that involves venipuncture. The data analysis method was a logistic regression with the aim of assessing relationships between preferences of patients for RHT as compared to CHT and characteristics of patients.
1061 GBM took part in the study of which 59% were found to report RHT as more convenient and less stressful. 34% reported no discreet differences between the two methods. 61% reported RHT as more comfortable. The majority of the participants agreed that RHT was satisfactory and the overall process was effective. 79% preferred to undergo RHT when they next came for undergoing a test. The prime findings of the study suggested more emphasis is to be given to keep the provision of RHT at clinical settings. Patient experiences are to be enhanced so that they demonstrate increased frequency and uptake of HIV testing. Informed planning is required to roll-out RHT in healthcare services at the earliest. More frequent tests can be facilitated in this way. The participants reported that they would consider more frequent tests if they are provided with an environment were their confidentiality is maintained and the results are given out within a short span of time. Communication between the patient and the clinician has been found to play a significant role in how the testing procedure is completed in a smooth manner, without any major hindrance. The study considered using a fourth generation Determine HIV Combo rapid test that was widely accepted by the men. Therefore, this particular testing method can be used at large in the community clinical settings. Since patients have a natural preference for fats delivery of reports on HIV tests that have shorter incubation times of 10 minutes is important for future RHT programs. This approach would permit better and strong integration of RHT into screening consultations.
Will gay and bisexually active men at high risk of infection use over-the-counter rapid HIV tests to screen sexual partners?. Journal of sex research, 49(4), pp.379-387.
The research conducted in the United States investigated whether gay and bisexual men who are HIV-uninfected or non-monogamous and rarely or never use condoms would consider using the Over-the counter (OTC) Rapid HIV tests as an approach that is considered to be harm-reduction. The rationale was that gay couples would avail this tool and decide on whether they must use condoms or not based on the results of the test. Sixty men took part in the study and completed two computer-assisted self-interviews after which they had to given an in-depth interview. The test kit considered was OraQuickTM, which is a rapid HIV test, that was available over the counter. The recruitment of participants was done at gay community organisations. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS software.
The participants highlighted that they had a proper understanding of the fact that antibody tests are presented with a certain window period that is important for detecting the virus causing HIV since detection is not possible within this span of time. However, the participants preferred this test for screening.  Participants presented a diverse range of potential strategies for introducing this home-test idea to partners and were found to recurrently recommended mutual testing. They also emphasized that OTC kits could inspire more uprightness and trustworthiness in disclosure of HIV-testing results. Most of the participants described peculiarities between testing occasional versus regular partners. It was concluded from the study that technologies when not interfering with the sexual pleasures are considered advantageous. The results showed that the men had a distinct enthusiasm for using OTC home test and they perceived the idea to be of much convenience. They had different opinions about when to consider undergoing a testing and with what kind of partners. In addition, they came up into an open and creative discussion about the strategies that can employ for approaching the cause. Although the testing could be intrusive, it could also give more freedom to the individuals. The chances of unexpected positive results were perceived as problematic and serious. They showed a desire to receive empathy and emotional support from care service providers so that they are better able to cope up with the situation. This holds much importance in the way of bringing advancements in how care services are provided. It implies that though OTC RHTs are useful, there must be a provision for emotional and social support in any form in adjuct with the direct testing guide so that individuals can come forward for getting the tests done.
References:
Carballo-Diéguez, A., Frasca, T., Dolezal, C. and Balan, I., 2012. Will gay and bisexually active men at high risk of infection use over-the-counter rapid HIV tests to screen sexual partners?. Journal of sex research, 49(4), pp.379-387.
Conway, D.P., Guy, R., Davies, S.C., Couldwell, D.L., McNulty, A., Smith, D.E., Keen, P., Cunningham, P. and Holt, M., 2015. Rapid HIV testing is highly acceptable and preferred among high-risk gay and bisexual men after implementation in Sydney sexual health clinics. PLoS One, 10(4), p.e0123814.
Flowers, P., Riddell, J., Park, C., Ahmed, B., Young, I., Frankis, J., Davis, M., Gilbert, M., Estcourt, C., Wallace, L. and McDaid, L.M., 2017. Preparedness for use of the rapid result HIV self?test by gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a mixed methods exploratory study among MSM and those involved in HIV prevention and care. HIV medicine, 18(4), pp.245-255.
Frasca, T., Balan, I., Ibitoye, M., Valladares, J., Dolezal, C. and Carballo-Diéguez, A., 2014. Attitude and behavior changes among gay and bisexual men after use of rapid home HIV tests to screen sexual partners. AIDS and Behavior, 18(5), pp.950-957

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