A Chronic Condition And Prevention

A Chronic Condition And Prevention

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A Chronic Condition And Prevention

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A Chronic Condition And Prevention

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Introduction
This research report is concerned with the examination of diabetes as a chronic disease in Australia. It also attempts to understand the causes and symptoms of diabetes, the rationale behind choosing diabetes as a chronic disease, the impact of diabetes on a local and the global level, some of the individual risk factors related to diabetes, management of diabetes, its prevention and remedies and the critical assessment the preventive and management strategies for mitigating diabetes. This essay further delves into the hospitalisation, prevalence and incidence of deaths.
Why diabetes is a chronic disease?
Diabetes also known as diabetes mellitus is responsible for affecting 200 people. It is believed to be the fifth cause of disease all over world. As a chronic disease, diabetes is characterized by when there is excess amount of glucose in the human body. Diabetes can
People with Polycystic Ovary (PCOS) may develop diabetes due to the excess consumption of sugar. There are two types of diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an outcome of the destruction of the cells in the pancreas by the immune system (McKnight et al., 2015). These cells are called beta cells. These cells are responsible for the production of insulin. In, diabetes, the beta cells are damaged. There is an obstruction in the movement of the glucose into the cells due to the absence of insulin. It has been reported that 5 per cent of people suffering from diabetes have type 1 diabetes (Wen et al., 2016).There has been more interesting results in this light. Type 1 diabetes have been reported to be higher among the whites compared to African-American people. Diabetes may occur at any age but  it causes harm to men and women in equal measure. Patients of type 1 diabetes have shown the sign of heart attacks. These attacks are known as autoantibodies.
High blood sugar can lead to a multiple factors. First condition is dehydration. This is a condition when there is excess sugar in the blood and the patient show the symptom of continuous pee. This is  the response of the body to get rid of the excess sugar from the system of the body. In this condition, a large amount of water is released from the body along with the urine as a waste product. Therefore, the body becomes excessively dry and dehydrated. Another symptom is weight loss. The glucose that is released from the body propels quick weight loss of the body. When the body is deprived of glucose, which is a source of fuel, the fat cells are disintegrated. This produces chemicals known as ketones. Then the liver liberates sugar from the body (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, 2016). This is known as ketoacids which is an outcome of dehydration, extra glucose and the excess development/ accumulation of acid in the body. The accumulation of ketoacidosis can have life threatening repercussions. The stockpile of high glucose levels in the body for a prolonged period of life can also damage the nerves. Additionally, it may also be adverse for the small blood vessels present in our eyes, heart and kidney. Another consequence maybe the stiffening of the atherosclerosis or the arteries, the result of this would be strokes and heart attacks. People with high blood sugar level in their body have been reported to have diabetes. Some of the common symptoms of diabetes are a sudden increase in hunger, dryness of the mouth, vomiting and nausea, pain the belly, frequent sensation of urination, feeling of perpetual weakness, blurred vision, heaviness in breathing and a sudden loss of weight of the body, infections on the skin, infections in the vagina or infections in the urinary tract. Type 1 diabetes is a condition when the pancreas do not produce insulin. It is reported that 10to 15   per cent of all the cases pertaining to diabetes are of Type 1 (Huo et al., 2016). It is also a common chronic childhood disease among the children. Type 1 diabetes mostly occurs under the age of 30 (Guariguata et al., 2014). People with Type 1 diabetes if they do not get insulin, their body would burn its own fats as an alternative to chemical substances in the blood.  Type 1 diabetes is said to have link with the hereditary of the family and hence, it becomes difficult to prevent it.
According to an important study conducted by Harding et al. (2014), around 1, 136, 617 Australian citizens who are affected with diabetes and are registered with the National Diabetes Services Scheme between the span of 1997 and 2010 were connected to the death index. The study also demonstrated that the SMR (Standard Mortality Ratio) for males in the year 1997 was 4.20 and in 2010 it is 3.08. In case of females, there is dip from 3.92 SMR to 3.46 SMR (Hendrieckx et al., 2017). This change is being perceived as negligible (Reports, 2018). While this was for Type 1 diabetes, the next set of revelations for Type 2 diabetes, there has been a reduction in Cardio-vascular disease (CVD) from 44.5 to 29. 2 per cent in males. In case of the females, there is a reduction from 45.5 to 31.3 per cent. This study has important implications to examine the mortality pattern in relation to diabetes (Reports, 2018).
 
The burden of the diabetes on global and local level
Diabetes is on a rise and it is found that the incidence of diabetes has shot up in middle-income countries. This surge in the rate of diabetes can be attributed to the lack of a proactive approach of the government to promote a culture of healthy lifestyles. The glaring paucity the treatment and prevention of premium quality and cutting-edge healthcare services for people with modest incomes is being touted is another cause for the burgeoning of diabetes in Australia.
The public health significance of diabetes in Australia
Diabetes as a chronic disease is of immense public significance. It is estimated that if diabetes continue to rise, more than three million people are predicted to be hit by this silent pandemic (Australia, 2014). There is a prognosis that by the year 2025, people above the age of 25 years are set to be hit by diabetes. The prevalence of type 2 disease can be attributed to the proliferation in the ageing population, transformation in the dietary habits, increase in obesity and a predilection towards sedentary lifestyle are being considered as the major reasons for Type 2 diabetes.
On the financial front, the economic burden on people with diabetes huge. It is found that the average medical expenditure for diabetic patients are twice as compared to patients who do not suffer from diabetes (Hill, Nielsen & Fox, 2013).
Individual risk factors for the condition
According to Bouillon et al., (2013), being female, increase in age, quitting smoking, low level of physical activity and the non-consumption of vegetables and fruits have been connected with prefailty or frailty with odd ratios that increases by 1 SD. The study proved that the selection of certain risk factors and certain risk scores for diabetes for diabetes are ultimately related to frailty. These risk scores have the possibility of utility for the prediction of frailty in clinical practises. Some of the risk factors associated with diabetes are cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In Australia, diabetes along with chronic kidney disorder and CVD constitutes for about a quarter of diseases for the population in Australia (Reports, 2018). In case of Type 2 diabetes, the cardinal determinants of risk cannot be altered that includes the increase in age, ethnicity, family heredity and genetic make-up.
 
The broad determinants of diabetes
A range of complex determinants both social environment and physical environments impinge the health. All these elements are together known as the social determinants of health. Internationally, it has been found that social determinants like education, income, access to nutritional food resources and housing have been identified as key determinants.
The pervasion and incidence of Type 2 diabetes have correlation with social and economic status of the individual. For example, people in the lower-income group and with no education are 2 to 4 times more prone to be affected by diabetes in compared to people who are economically privileged (Risk factors to health, 2018). Hence, attention needs to be directed at the social determinants of diabetes as it continues to pose barrier in the amelioration of the health condition of the population.
Management of diabetes: Prevention and remedies
Insulin is basically a hormone. The function of insulin is to help in the movement of glucose or sugar into the tissues of the body (Holmes-Truscott et al., 2016). It is then in turn is used  by the cells as a fuel. The common remedy for Type 1 diabetes is the use of insulin injection or the use of insulin pumps.
The first step towards the mitigation of diabetes are the consultation of GPs (General Practitioners). Diabetes needs to be regulated in a collaborative arrangement. This would entail a continuous surveillance of the loss of weight of the patient, level of blood, the average status of health, and there needs to be an approach that thoroughly examines the feet and eyes of the patients (Baxter et al., 2016). In case, complication is observed in a diabetic patient, they should be referred to cardiologists, endocrinologists, obstetricians, nephrologists or ophthalmologists depending on the condition.
On a national level, diabetes is addressed through a range of endeavours and policies that is committed towards the management and treatment of patients with diabetes. Australia has also shown dedication in conducting clinical research and funding for the treatment of diabetes. There is the provision of Medicare Benefits Schedule that distributes subsidies for the care of patients and incorporates medicare products for the management and planning of terminal and chronic conditions (World Health Organization, 2016). Patients who are referred by the GPs can also avail the subsidised Medicare health services that are connected to the amelioration of chronic condition, in this regard diabetes. Second, provision is the Pharmaceuticals Benefits Scheme that caters to the medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Another provision is the National Diabetes services Scheme that is supervised by Diabetes Australia in collaboration with the Department of Health. The function of this provision is to provide subsidized items like needles and syringes, test strips, blood glucose, insulin pump and urine test strips. There are other remarkable investments in diabetes research through the intervention of National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for the research into the plight of diabetes. The aim of this scheme is to work on patient care with different and convoluted disease that also includes diabetes. It has been recognized by NHMRC as a key focus for 2013-2015 Strategic Plan.
 
Another key intervention has emerged from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) that provides patronage to support surveillance and monitoring of vascular diseases including diabetes and chronic kidney disorder on a national scale.
In the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, member states to proposed for an Agenda of Sustainable Development and Member States embarked upon an ambitious target to minimize NCDs that are responsible for the premature mortality. This also includes diabetes which is responsible for one0third deaths in Australia (World Health Organization, 2015). It was decided that by 2030 there will be the disbursal of universal health coverage and the provision of of the accessibility to affordable indispensable medicines. The WHO Global Report on Diabetes has been devised by WHO as an endeavour to collect data on the incidence, hospitalization and consequences of diabetes in Australia. The report would engage in a understanding the trends in diabetes, high blood glucose (diabetes) that leads to premature mortality.
 
Critical review of the management of diabetes
Insulin has been perceived as an important remedy to mitigate diabetes. There is a belief among 51 per cent people that taking recourse to insulin is suggestive of the further exacerbation in their diabetic condition (Holmes?Truscott et al., 2015). There is also a prevalent belief that insulin as a remedy leads to the increase in weight. Consumption of insulin also means to some people that their diabetes has increased (39 per cent of the people are of that view). The Australian Bureau of disease Study (ABDS) 2011 identified four complications as a result of diabetes. Some of these symptoms are diabetic foot ulcer, visual impairment, diabetic neuropathy and amputation of the lower limb. In the year 2011, it was found that about 730, 000Australians have been diagnosed with diabetes. Out of which around 1.7 per cent have faced amputation of the lower limb (Silvestre et al., 2016). It was further found that there have been detrimental effects on health as a result of lower limb amputation. In 2015, around 28, 775 people started taking recourse to insulin- out of which 63 per cent were suffering from type 2 diabetes, 26 per cent people had gestational diabetes, 9 per cent type 1 diabetes and 2 per cent were suffering from other kinds of diabetes (World Health Organization 2015).
In case of the WHO Report, There would also be an effort in examining the role and onus undertaken by the government to mitigate and alleviate the bane of diabetes. Although, the WHO initiative is commendable, however it is important to engage the civil society and people with diabetes as important social actors in the prevention of diabetes. Another key strategy would be to involve the manufacturers of medicine and the producers of food to come up with sustainable and effective strategies that mitigate the rise of diabetes. The Report has also brought out that it is important to address diabetes not just on singular level  but through the development of collective consensus. The different stakeholders in the diabetes need to realize their potent role in this regard. The civil society and different health groups need to create persistent pressure on the government for public expenditure on diabetes. The WHO Report should not be limited to a five year analysis. On the contrary, it is pragmatic to adopt a longitudinal study approach to keep a track on the performance of the multiple stakeholders in relation to diabetes awareness and prevention.
Another strategy that needs to be included in the WHO Report on Diabetes is to engage school children to create awareness and explain the plight of diabetes. This will create an early sensitization that would enable them to understand the different preventive measures that propels to diabetes and hence, the glaring rise of diabetes can be brought down.
Conclusion
Therefore, the above discussions on the impact of diabetes in Australia highlighted the cause of diabetes and the mortality rate and concomitant diseases that have rose due to the prevalence of diabetes. It was found that the Australian government has shown enthusiasm in mitigating the incidence of diabetes, however there is an urgency to collaborate different stakeholders related to diabetes and sustain a culture of awareness and prevention on a long-term basis.
 
References
Australia, D. (2014). Diabetes: the silent pandemic and its impact on Australia. 2012.
Baxter, M., Hudson, R., Mahon, J., Bartlett, C., Samyshkin, Y., Alexiou, D., & Hex, N. (2016). Estimating the impact of better management of glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes on the number of clinical complications and the associated financial benefit. Diabetic Medicine, 33(11), 1575-1581.
Bouillon, K., Kivimäki, M., Hamer, M., Shipley, M. J., Akbaraly, T. N., Tabak, A., … & Batty, G. D. (2013). Diabetes risk factors, diabetes risk algorithms, and the prediction of future frailty: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(11), 851-e1.
Guariguata, L., Whiting, D. R., Hambleton, I., Beagley, J., Linnenkamp, U., & Shaw, J. E. (2014). Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 103(2), 137-149.
Harding, J. L., Shaw, J. E., Peeters, A., Guiver, T., Davidson, S., & Magliano, D. J. (2015). Mortality Trends Among People With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Australia: 1997–2010. Diabetes Care 2014; 37: 2579–2586. Diabetes care, 38(4), 733-734.
Haynes, A., Bulsara, M. K., Bower, C., Jones, T. W., & Davis, E. A. (2015). Regular peaks and troughs in the Australian incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (2000–2011). Diabetologia, 58(11), 2513-2516.
Hendrieckx, C., Hagger, V., Jenkins, A., Skinner, T. C., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2017). Severe hypoglycemia, impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, and self-monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia. Journal of diabetes and its complications, 31(3), 577-582.
Hill, J., Nielsen, M., & Fox, M. H. (2013). Understanding the social factors that contribute to diabetes: a means to informing health care and social policies for the chronically ill. The Permanente Journal, 17(2), 67.
Holmes-Truscott, E., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2014). Further investigation of the psychometric properties of the insulin treatment appraisal scale among insulin-using and non-insulin-using adults with type 2 diabetes: results from diabetes MILES–Australia. Health and quality of life outcomes, 12(1), 87.
Holmes?Truscott, E., Skinner, T. C., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2015). Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin: Results from Diabetes MILES–Australia cross?sectional survey. Diabetic Medicine, 32(10), 1297-1303.
Holmes-Truscott, E., Skinner, T. C., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2016). Explaining psychological insulin resistance in adults with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: The roles of diabetes distress and current medication concerns. Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia. Primary care diabetes, 10(1), 75-82.
Huo, L., Shaw, J. E., Wong, E., Harding, J. L., Peeters, A., & Magliano, D. J. (2016). Burden of diabetes in Australia: life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy in adults with diabetes. Diabetologia, 59(7), 1437-1445.
McKnight, J. A., Wild, S. H., Lamb, M. J. E., Cooper, M. N., Jones, T. W., Davis, E. A., … & Almdal, T. (2015). Glycaemic control of Type 1 diabetes in clinical practice early in the 21st century: an international comparison. Diabetic Medicine, 32(8), 1036-1050.
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4· 4 million participants. The Lancet, 387(10027), 1513-1530.
Reports. (2018). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports-statistics/health-conditions-disability-deaths/diabetes/reports.
Risk factors to health. (2018). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved 15 March 2018, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/biomedical-risk-factors/risk-factors-to-health/contents/high-blood-pressure.
Silvestre, M., Poppitt, S. D., Liu, A., Muirhead, R., Fogelholm, M., Larsen, T., … & Brand-Miller, J. (2016). Prevention of diabetes through lifestyle intervention in Europe and the world [PREVIEW]: RCT update for NZ and Australia. In Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism.
World Health Organization. (2016). Global report on diabetes. World Health Organization.
WHO (World Health Organization) 2015. WHO global health observatory data repository. Raised blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 OR DBP ≥ 90). Date by country. Geneva: World Health Organization. Viewed 4 April 2017.
Wen, W., Frampton, R., Wright, K., Fattore, S., Shadbolt, B., & Perampalam, S. (2016). A pilot study of factors associated with glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus on insulin pump therapy. Diabetic Medicine, 33(2), 231-234.

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A Chronic Condition And Prevention

A Chronic Condition And Prevention

Free Samples

A Chronic Condition And Prevention

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
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A Chronic Condition And Prevention

0 Download13 Pages / 3,107 Words

Question:
Discuss about the Chronic Condition And Prevention.
 
 
Answer:

Introduction
This research report is concerned with the examination of diabetes as a chronic disease in Australia. It also attempts to understand the causes and symptoms of diabetes, the rationale behind choosing diabetes as a chronic disease, the impact of diabetes on a local and the global level, some of the individual risk factors related to diabetes, management of diabetes, its prevention and remedies and the critical assessment the preventive and management strategies for mitigating diabetes. This essay further delves into the hospitalisation, prevalence and incidence of deaths.
Why diabetes is a chronic disease?
Diabetes also known as diabetes mellitus is responsible for affecting 200 people. It is believed to be the fifth cause of disease all over world. As a chronic disease, diabetes is characterized by when there is excess amount of glucose in the human body. Diabetes can
People with Polycystic Ovary (PCOS) may develop diabetes due to the excess consumption of sugar. There are two types of diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an outcome of the destruction of the cells in the pancreas by the immune system (McKnight et al., 2015). These cells are called beta cells. These cells are responsible for the production of insulin. In, diabetes, the beta cells are damaged. There is an obstruction in the movement of the glucose into the cells due to the absence of insulin. It has been reported that 5 per cent of people suffering from diabetes have type 1 diabetes (Wen et al., 2016).There has been more interesting results in this light. Type 1 diabetes have been reported to be higher among the whites compared to African-American people. Diabetes may occur at any age but  it causes harm to men and women in equal measure. Patients of type 1 diabetes have shown the sign of heart attacks. These attacks are known as autoantibodies.
High blood sugar can lead to a multiple factors. First condition is dehydration. This is a condition when there is excess sugar in the blood and the patient show the symptom of continuous pee. This is  the response of the body to get rid of the excess sugar from the system of the body. In this condition, a large amount of water is released from the body along with the urine as a waste product. Therefore, the body becomes excessively dry and dehydrated. Another symptom is weight loss. The glucose that is released from the body propels quick weight loss of the body. When the body is deprived of glucose, which is a source of fuel, the fat cells are disintegrated. This produces chemicals known as ketones. Then the liver liberates sugar from the body (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, 2016). This is known as ketoacids which is an outcome of dehydration, extra glucose and the excess development/ accumulation of acid in the body. The accumulation of ketoacidosis can have life threatening repercussions. The stockpile of high glucose levels in the body for a prolonged period of life can also damage the nerves. Additionally, it may also be adverse for the small blood vessels present in our eyes, heart and kidney. Another consequence maybe the stiffening of the atherosclerosis or the arteries, the result of this would be strokes and heart attacks. People with high blood sugar level in their body have been reported to have diabetes. Some of the common symptoms of diabetes are a sudden increase in hunger, dryness of the mouth, vomiting and nausea, pain the belly, frequent sensation of urination, feeling of perpetual weakness, blurred vision, heaviness in breathing and a sudden loss of weight of the body, infections on the skin, infections in the vagina or infections in the urinary tract. Type 1 diabetes is a condition when the pancreas do not produce insulin. It is reported that 10to 15   per cent of all the cases pertaining to diabetes are of Type 1 (Huo et al., 2016). It is also a common chronic childhood disease among the children. Type 1 diabetes mostly occurs under the age of 30 (Guariguata et al., 2014). People with Type 1 diabetes if they do not get insulin, their body would burn its own fats as an alternative to chemical substances in the blood.  Type 1 diabetes is said to have link with the hereditary of the family and hence, it becomes difficult to prevent it.
According to an important study conducted by Harding et al. (2014), around 1, 136, 617 Australian citizens who are affected with diabetes and are registered with the National Diabetes Services Scheme between the span of 1997 and 2010 were connected to the death index. The study also demonstrated that the SMR (Standard Mortality Ratio) for males in the year 1997 was 4.20 and in 2010 it is 3.08. In case of females, there is dip from 3.92 SMR to 3.46 SMR (Hendrieckx et al., 2017). This change is being perceived as negligible (Reports, 2018). While this was for Type 1 diabetes, the next set of revelations for Type 2 diabetes, there has been a reduction in Cardio-vascular disease (CVD) from 44.5 to 29. 2 per cent in males. In case of the females, there is a reduction from 45.5 to 31.3 per cent. This study has important implications to examine the mortality pattern in relation to diabetes (Reports, 2018).
 
The burden of the diabetes on global and local level
Diabetes is on a rise and it is found that the incidence of diabetes has shot up in middle-income countries. This surge in the rate of diabetes can be attributed to the lack of a proactive approach of the government to promote a culture of healthy lifestyles. The glaring paucity the treatment and prevention of premium quality and cutting-edge healthcare services for people with modest incomes is being touted is another cause for the burgeoning of diabetes in Australia.
The public health significance of diabetes in Australia
Diabetes as a chronic disease is of immense public significance. It is estimated that if diabetes continue to rise, more than three million people are predicted to be hit by this silent pandemic (Australia, 2014). There is a prognosis that by the year 2025, people above the age of 25 years are set to be hit by diabetes. The prevalence of type 2 disease can be attributed to the proliferation in the ageing population, transformation in the dietary habits, increase in obesity and a predilection towards sedentary lifestyle are being considered as the major reasons for Type 2 diabetes.
On the financial front, the economic burden on people with diabetes huge. It is found that the average medical expenditure for diabetic patients are twice as compared to patients who do not suffer from diabetes (Hill, Nielsen & Fox, 2013).
Individual risk factors for the condition
According to Bouillon et al., (2013), being female, increase in age, quitting smoking, low level of physical activity and the non-consumption of vegetables and fruits have been connected with prefailty or frailty with odd ratios that increases by 1 SD. The study proved that the selection of certain risk factors and certain risk scores for diabetes for diabetes are ultimately related to frailty. These risk scores have the possibility of utility for the prediction of frailty in clinical practises. Some of the risk factors associated with diabetes are cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In Australia, diabetes along with chronic kidney disorder and CVD constitutes for about a quarter of diseases for the population in Australia (Reports, 2018). In case of Type 2 diabetes, the cardinal determinants of risk cannot be altered that includes the increase in age, ethnicity, family heredity and genetic make-up.
 
The broad determinants of diabetes
A range of complex determinants both social environment and physical environments impinge the health. All these elements are together known as the social determinants of health. Internationally, it has been found that social determinants like education, income, access to nutritional food resources and housing have been identified as key determinants.
The pervasion and incidence of Type 2 diabetes have correlation with social and economic status of the individual. For example, people in the lower-income group and with no education are 2 to 4 times more prone to be affected by diabetes in compared to people who are economically privileged (Risk factors to health, 2018). Hence, attention needs to be directed at the social determinants of diabetes as it continues to pose barrier in the amelioration of the health condition of the population.
Management of diabetes: Prevention and remedies
Insulin is basically a hormone. The function of insulin is to help in the movement of glucose or sugar into the tissues of the body (Holmes-Truscott et al., 2016). It is then in turn is used  by the cells as a fuel. The common remedy for Type 1 diabetes is the use of insulin injection or the use of insulin pumps.
The first step towards the mitigation of diabetes are the consultation of GPs (General Practitioners). Diabetes needs to be regulated in a collaborative arrangement. This would entail a continuous surveillance of the loss of weight of the patient, level of blood, the average status of health, and there needs to be an approach that thoroughly examines the feet and eyes of the patients (Baxter et al., 2016). In case, complication is observed in a diabetic patient, they should be referred to cardiologists, endocrinologists, obstetricians, nephrologists or ophthalmologists depending on the condition.
On a national level, diabetes is addressed through a range of endeavours and policies that is committed towards the management and treatment of patients with diabetes. Australia has also shown dedication in conducting clinical research and funding for the treatment of diabetes. There is the provision of Medicare Benefits Schedule that distributes subsidies for the care of patients and incorporates medicare products for the management and planning of terminal and chronic conditions (World Health Organization, 2016). Patients who are referred by the GPs can also avail the subsidised Medicare health services that are connected to the amelioration of chronic condition, in this regard diabetes. Second, provision is the Pharmaceuticals Benefits Scheme that caters to the medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Another provision is the National Diabetes services Scheme that is supervised by Diabetes Australia in collaboration with the Department of Health. The function of this provision is to provide subsidized items like needles and syringes, test strips, blood glucose, insulin pump and urine test strips. There are other remarkable investments in diabetes research through the intervention of National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for the research into the plight of diabetes. The aim of this scheme is to work on patient care with different and convoluted disease that also includes diabetes. It has been recognized by NHMRC as a key focus for 2013-2015 Strategic Plan.
 
Another key intervention has emerged from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) that provides patronage to support surveillance and monitoring of vascular diseases including diabetes and chronic kidney disorder on a national scale.
In the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, member states to proposed for an Agenda of Sustainable Development and Member States embarked upon an ambitious target to minimize NCDs that are responsible for the premature mortality. This also includes diabetes which is responsible for one0third deaths in Australia (World Health Organization, 2015). It was decided that by 2030 there will be the disbursal of universal health coverage and the provision of of the accessibility to affordable indispensable medicines. The WHO Global Report on Diabetes has been devised by WHO as an endeavour to collect data on the incidence, hospitalization and consequences of diabetes in Australia. The report would engage in a understanding the trends in diabetes, high blood glucose (diabetes) that leads to premature mortality.
 
Critical review of the management of diabetes
Insulin has been perceived as an important remedy to mitigate diabetes. There is a belief among 51 per cent people that taking recourse to insulin is suggestive of the further exacerbation in their diabetic condition (Holmes?Truscott et al., 2015). There is also a prevalent belief that insulin as a remedy leads to the increase in weight. Consumption of insulin also means to some people that their diabetes has increased (39 per cent of the people are of that view). The Australian Bureau of disease Study (ABDS) 2011 identified four complications as a result of diabetes. Some of these symptoms are diabetic foot ulcer, visual impairment, diabetic neuropathy and amputation of the lower limb. In the year 2011, it was found that about 730, 000Australians have been diagnosed with diabetes. Out of which around 1.7 per cent have faced amputation of the lower limb (Silvestre et al., 2016). It was further found that there have been detrimental effects on health as a result of lower limb amputation. In 2015, around 28, 775 people started taking recourse to insulin- out of which 63 per cent were suffering from type 2 diabetes, 26 per cent people had gestational diabetes, 9 per cent type 1 diabetes and 2 per cent were suffering from other kinds of diabetes (World Health Organization 2015).
In case of the WHO Report, There would also be an effort in examining the role and onus undertaken by the government to mitigate and alleviate the bane of diabetes. Although, the WHO initiative is commendable, however it is important to engage the civil society and people with diabetes as important social actors in the prevention of diabetes. Another key strategy would be to involve the manufacturers of medicine and the producers of food to come up with sustainable and effective strategies that mitigate the rise of diabetes. The Report has also brought out that it is important to address diabetes not just on singular level  but through the development of collective consensus. The different stakeholders in the diabetes need to realize their potent role in this regard. The civil society and different health groups need to create persistent pressure on the government for public expenditure on diabetes. The WHO Report should not be limited to a five year analysis. On the contrary, it is pragmatic to adopt a longitudinal study approach to keep a track on the performance of the multiple stakeholders in relation to diabetes awareness and prevention.
Another strategy that needs to be included in the WHO Report on Diabetes is to engage school children to create awareness and explain the plight of diabetes. This will create an early sensitization that would enable them to understand the different preventive measures that propels to diabetes and hence, the glaring rise of diabetes can be brought down.
Conclusion
Therefore, the above discussions on the impact of diabetes in Australia highlighted the cause of diabetes and the mortality rate and concomitant diseases that have rose due to the prevalence of diabetes. It was found that the Australian government has shown enthusiasm in mitigating the incidence of diabetes, however there is an urgency to collaborate different stakeholders related to diabetes and sustain a culture of awareness and prevention on a long-term basis.
 
References
Australia, D. (2014). Diabetes: the silent pandemic and its impact on Australia. 2012.
Baxter, M., Hudson, R., Mahon, J., Bartlett, C., Samyshkin, Y., Alexiou, D., & Hex, N. (2016). Estimating the impact of better management of glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes on the number of clinical complications and the associated financial benefit. Diabetic Medicine, 33(11), 1575-1581.
Bouillon, K., Kivimäki, M., Hamer, M., Shipley, M. J., Akbaraly, T. N., Tabak, A., … & Batty, G. D. (2013). Diabetes risk factors, diabetes risk algorithms, and the prediction of future frailty: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(11), 851-e1.
Guariguata, L., Whiting, D. R., Hambleton, I., Beagley, J., Linnenkamp, U., & Shaw, J. E. (2014). Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 103(2), 137-149.
Harding, J. L., Shaw, J. E., Peeters, A., Guiver, T., Davidson, S., & Magliano, D. J. (2015). Mortality Trends Among People With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Australia: 1997–2010. Diabetes Care 2014; 37: 2579–2586. Diabetes care, 38(4), 733-734.
Haynes, A., Bulsara, M. K., Bower, C., Jones, T. W., & Davis, E. A. (2015). Regular peaks and troughs in the Australian incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (2000–2011). Diabetologia, 58(11), 2513-2516.
Hendrieckx, C., Hagger, V., Jenkins, A., Skinner, T. C., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2017). Severe hypoglycemia, impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, and self-monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia. Journal of diabetes and its complications, 31(3), 577-582.
Hill, J., Nielsen, M., & Fox, M. H. (2013). Understanding the social factors that contribute to diabetes: a means to informing health care and social policies for the chronically ill. The Permanente Journal, 17(2), 67.
Holmes-Truscott, E., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2014). Further investigation of the psychometric properties of the insulin treatment appraisal scale among insulin-using and non-insulin-using adults with type 2 diabetes: results from diabetes MILES–Australia. Health and quality of life outcomes, 12(1), 87.
Holmes?Truscott, E., Skinner, T. C., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2015). Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin: Results from Diabetes MILES–Australia cross?sectional survey. Diabetic Medicine, 32(10), 1297-1303.
Holmes-Truscott, E., Skinner, T. C., Pouwer, F., & Speight, J. (2016). Explaining psychological insulin resistance in adults with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: The roles of diabetes distress and current medication concerns. Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia. Primary care diabetes, 10(1), 75-82.
Huo, L., Shaw, J. E., Wong, E., Harding, J. L., Peeters, A., & Magliano, D. J. (2016). Burden of diabetes in Australia: life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy in adults with diabetes. Diabetologia, 59(7), 1437-1445.
McKnight, J. A., Wild, S. H., Lamb, M. J. E., Cooper, M. N., Jones, T. W., Davis, E. A., … & Almdal, T. (2015). Glycaemic control of Type 1 diabetes in clinical practice early in the 21st century: an international comparison. Diabetic Medicine, 32(8), 1036-1050.
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4· 4 million participants. The Lancet, 387(10027), 1513-1530.
Reports. (2018). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports-statistics/health-conditions-disability-deaths/diabetes/reports.
Risk factors to health. (2018). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved 15 March 2018, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/biomedical-risk-factors/risk-factors-to-health/contents/high-blood-pressure.
Silvestre, M., Poppitt, S. D., Liu, A., Muirhead, R., Fogelholm, M., Larsen, T., … & Brand-Miller, J. (2016). Prevention of diabetes through lifestyle intervention in Europe and the world [PREVIEW]: RCT update for NZ and Australia. In Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism.
World Health Organization. (2016). Global report on diabetes. World Health Organization.
WHO (World Health Organization) 2015. WHO global health observatory data repository. Raised blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 OR DBP ≥ 90). Date by country. Geneva: World Health Organization. Viewed 4 April 2017.
Wen, W., Frampton, R., Wright, K., Fattore, S., Shadbolt, B., & Perampalam, S. (2016). A pilot study of factors associated with glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus on insulin pump therapy. Diabetic Medicine, 33(2), 231-234.

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