Argyle

Argyle

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Argyle

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Argyle

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Question:
Explain Argyle’s Communication cycle .
 
Answer:

Importance of effective communication and interpersonal interaction while dealing with service users
In the health and social care settings, communication is the key aspect for successful outcomes. Through effective communication and interpersonal interaction a positive relationship can be established within the health care providers and health care users. An effective communication enhances the quality of care as well as quickens the recovery process of the patient (Barry & Edgman-Levitan, 2012). While interacting with the service users, a number of ways are there through which effective communication can be established.
With the help of examples, the importance of effective communication and interpersonal interactions in the health and social care could be analyzed. For example, while working with a multi-disciplinary group, the professional should have diverse communication skill to express his own perspectives to the team members which participating in the care planning of the patient. In another example, while dealing a patient of aboriginal culture, the patient might not understand the medical terminologies used by the health care professionals, in this context; the professional should have diverse language knowledge to interact with the patient via a satisfactory communication (Glasby, 2012). In addition, while working with a mental health patient, for example with a dementia patient, the patient might need emotional support and through the non-verbal communication like positive facial expression, touch and reflective listening, the efficiency of interpersonal interaction can be built. In contrast, while communicating with the professional in higher level in the health care hierarchy, the non verbal skills would include showing respect and obedience and verbal skills would include use of medical terminologies for enhancing the efficiency of communication. Effective communication is also needed for applying appropriate communication forms at right place like messaging, signing, symbols and use of technology (Ingleby, 2012).  
Health and Social care theories
Argyle’s Communication cycle
Argyle’s theory of communication cycle focuses on six core concepts which come in the form of cycle, in step-by-step manner. In the first step, the idea first occurs and the message is coded in the second stage when the idea needs to be shared. In this stage the idea is placed into a form of communication and it could be any kinds of verbal or nonverbal communication style. In the next step, the encoded message is sent to the other person, for example speaking, signing written document or other methods of communication. In the fourth step, other person would receive the message (Rosenbaum, 2012). In the next step, the other person would decode the message by making assumptions to what have been said in the message. In the last step, the person would understand the message by establishing a communicating means.
Tuckman’s Stage of Group interaction
Tuckman’s stage of group interaction is a model which describes the process of group development through four phases. These stages are forming, storming, norming and performing. Through these four stages, a successful and effective team can be built. In the first stage, forming, the team members meet and learn about the challenges and opportunities and understand the goals and the team begins to mature (Cuadra, 2012). In the next step, storming, the team members would start to push against the barriers and attempt to cope with the barriers. This phase include failure and improvements through those failures. In the next step, norming, the team members would be responsible for their tasks and become aware of their common goals. In the last step, performing, the team is able to perform assigned task after overcoming barriers and attempt to reach the goals set (Cowles, 2012).  
Impact of theories on health and social care communication
The Argyle’s Communication cycle helps the health and social care workers to build on their communication skills and to understand the process of communication through which they can implement improved interpersonal interaction with the service users. On the other hand, the Tuckman’s stages of group interaction help the health and social care worker to understand the stages of an efficient team development (Middleton et al., 2013). Through this model, the staffs would be aware of the challenges and opportunities in communication within a multi-disciplinary team in the health care settings.
Strength and weaknesses of communication and interpersonal interactions
While analyzing the above mentioned theories in health and social care context, it has been seen that the strength of Argyle theory is that the message is fully understood by the person being communicated while implementing this model in communication and interpersonal interaction. The weakness of one-to-one communication is that the message can go in wrong direction and thereby creating a miscommunication. If the person is not aware of all types of communication like a symbolic interaction, the message would be difficult to understand by the person (Cunningham et al., 2012).
Factors influencing communication and interpersonal interactions in health and social care environment
There are several factors which can influence the communication and interpersonal interactions both positively and negatively. These factors include the environmental factors like settings where the communication is being done; it might not be suitable for the particular type of communication. For example, while communicating with the higher authorities in the organization, formal communication is needed always (Barnett et al., 2012). In addition, while communicating with the patient or interacting with the family member of a service user about the health issues, if there is so much noise in background, it would be difficult to make the communication efficient. Sometimes, due to inappropriate seating, lighting or space, the effective communication and interpersonal interaction could be hampered. Time is a major factor. If the communication last for adequate time, the message could be understood properly by the other person. There are also personal or internal factors which could affect the communication. The person, to whom the communicative message is being sent, should be attentive and should have good listening skills which could enhance the efficiency of the interaction (Brach et al., 2012). If the person provides a good response, a good interpersonal relationship could be established.
The barriers of communication include language needs or preferences, which is often faced by the health care providers while dealing with Foreign Service user or cross cultural patients. If the person has disability, sensory impairment, depression, different values and beliefs depression can be the barriers. Sometimes, clash in different personality, self-esteem, submissiveness and negative assumptions become the barriers of communication within health care team. In other context, if the person use most of the jargons in their words, it would be more difficult to understand the message (Aveyard, 2014).  
Strategies used in health and social care to overcome barriers of effective interpersonal communication
In the section below, some common barriers of health and social care settings would be discussed and the strategies for overcoming these barriers would also be discussed.
Language needs- As different cross-cultural patients are dealt in health and social care settings; they might use different languages, thus the health care staffs should be trained for diverse languages to understand the needs of cross cultural patients (Glasby & Dickinson, 2014).
Disability- The disables patients sometimes cannot accommodate with the health care workers, at that moment, the health care workers should use technological aids for enhancing their communication efficiency. For example, hearing aids, voice activated software, loop system, alarms, text phones and minicons can be used to combat with disability.
Poor lighting, seating arrangement- If the environment is not suitable, often the interpersonal communication gets hindrance. Thus, the environment should be suitable. Brighter light, sound proof room, reduction of background noise, keeping the place calm, can increase the interpersonal interaction’s efficiency.
Depression- While assessing depressed patients, the staffs should show respect, positive facial expression, appropriate non-verbal communicative signs and symbols should be executed to make the patient feel safe and empowered to communicate (Brüggemann, Wijma & Swahnberg, 2012).
Health issues- If a person has health issues, effective communication is hampered and understanding the preferences of the patient would help to establish a positive relationship with the patient, thereby enhancing efficiency of interaction. In addition, alternative forms of communication like sign and symbols can be used (Kongstvedt, 2012).
Jargons usage- Appropriate training can help the staffs to understand professional language in health care settings. In addition, penalties can be given in the case of jargon or slang usage.
 
Strength and weaknesses of communication strategies to overcome communication barriers
The communication strategies discussed earlier has so many strengths but also has weaknesses depending upon the settings where the strategies are being implemented. The strengths of these communication strategies is that in most of the cases, the strategies help the professionals to promote face-to-face interaction which helps to avoid communication barriers. In addition, this strategy of communication has a part of learning which is very important while dealing with multidisciplinary stakeholders (Mechanic, 2012). The communications strategies help to improve the two-way communication process. After getting training the open feedback would be would be encouraged. In contrast, the weaknesses would include failure of considering the needs of audience. Inadequate evaluation of client’s needs in health care settings can cause major inconvenience in communication process. In some settings, the technical aids are not available to assist the patient.
Evaluation of communication strategies for overcoming communication barriers
While evaluating the communication strategies, it has been revealed that these strategies would help to get trained and skilled staffs who would ensure the safety and security of the clients through effective communication. In addition, these strategies would make the staffs enable to work in multidisciplinary settings (Ryan et al., 2012).
Assessment of multi-disciplinary working for improvement of health service provision
Multidisciplinary team includes all the professionals working in an association as a team. Thus, working in a multi-disciplinary team can help to avoid a number of inefficiencies of a staff working individually. In this context, while working in a multidisciplinary team, communication barriers can also be avoided. While working in a multi-disciplinary team, if one staff is unable to communicate with a client due to cultural difference or other issue, other staffs can guide him or can directly communicate with the client to resolve the problem. On the other hand, it can help the client to provide holistic care services, as in a multi-disciplinary health team; there are GP, specialized doctor, nurses, psychiatrist, counselor, physiotherapist and others. Therefore, all the medical assistance could be provided from this team immediately, thereby assuring the highest quality of medical service (Aveyard, 2014).
Evaluation of effectiveness of examples of working in multidisciplinary health service provision
With the help of examples, the effectiveness of working in a multidisciplinary health care team can be evaluated. While dealing a geriatric patient recently experienced a fall, the patient was initially assessed for her medical and physical needs. After assessment, the patient was assisted by the counselor for enhancing her trust towards the health care team. The nurse assisted in her ADLs while the physiotherapist helped in combating with the injury of fall. In this way, a high quality service was provided. In another example, while working in a multidisciplinary team, a patient came in the emergency department after a severe accident. The multidisciplinary team undertaken proper action after assessing the patient’s condition immediately which helped to save the patient’s life through the avoidance of inconvenience and delay in treatment (Aveyard, 2014).
Potential hazards and harm raised in health and social care setting

Describe the hazard

Explain why it is a hazard. What harm may be caused and to who?

What are staff expected to do in order to minimise the risk?

Medication error-Biological
 
 

It is a biological hazard. In the residential care home, there are patients with cognitive impairment like dementia, they are unable to memorize their medications and thus, there is chance of missing medication dose which can be hazardous to patient’s health.   

To minimize the risk, the staffs should keep the electronic health records and should keep daily routines of medications for each patient.

Nosocomial infection- Biological
 
 

Nosocomial infections are the infections acquired from the hospital or health care settings. If one resident of the residential care acquire an infection, the chance of infection to others enhances to the other residents.

To minimize the risk of nosocomial infection, the health care staffs should regularly monitor each patient’s health and report any medical issue, if identified; the resident should be separately treated for minimizing infection.

Risk of fall and injury due to wet floor – Physical
 
 

It is a physical risk to the residents in the care home. The hazard can harm both staffs and care residents. It has been revealed that some residents has physical impairment, thus inappropriate assistance can enhance the risk of fall and injury. On the other hand, wet floor can enhance the risk of fall of health care staffs also 

Risk assessment should be done on regular basis and based on the results the settings should be modified to reduce the risk. For patients with physical disabilities, wheelchair, walkers can be provided and for patients with sensory impairment alarms, pagers can be provided to report immediately upon addressing hazards. For the employees, the health and safety act at work 1974 should be followed.

Contact with hazardous chemicals- Chemical
 
 

This chemical hazard can cause harm to both staffs and residents. The chemical hazards can be from toxic chemicals. Sometimes, harmful acid containers are kept open which can cause harm to the residents. In addition, the medication allergy can also harm residents.  

The organization should maintain log book for every chemical usage for keeping records of use. Residents should be assessed for medication or food allergy at the time of entry into the residential care home.

Abuse- Physical and psychological
 
 

This hazard is very important to be controlled as it can also harm the image of the organization along with the health of the victim. The abuse can be caused to the care user by the care providers or by the other residents. In addition, the staffs can also be abused by other staffs or higher authorities. It can cause psychological problems or physical injury to the victims.  

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Elder justice Act and other legislations against abusive behavior in health care should be included. The health care policies should include warnings and penalties for abusive behavior of staffs.

Stress of staffs for long shift hours- psychological
 
 

It can harm the staffs psychologically and cause harm to the service users also. It is because, when a staff would deal with a care user with a stressed mode, the chance of error would enhance and it would negatively affect upon the patient’s health

To reduce stress related hazard, staffs should be provided a comfortable environment with empowering activities. A proper stress management training session would be implemented for newly joined staffs.

Influence of legislation, policies and procedures relating to health, safety and security upon health and social care settings
There are a number of legislations in UK health and social care settings which are followed by the health care staffs to ensure healthy, safe and secured services provided by the organizations. The legislations and guidelines which are followed strictly in the health and social care settings include the Health and safety Act 1974 which promotes the safety or care users by ensuring the correct responsibility and accountability of health care staffs (Great Britain Department of Health, 2012). The manual handling operations regulation 1992 ensures that employees would try to eliminate manual handling operation to reduce risks, thereby promoting safety. The reporting of all injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulation 1995 ensures that the staffs would be accountable to report any kinds of above mentioned incidence to the higher authorities to combat with the situation. The data protection act 1998 ensures that all the personal information provided by patients would be kept confidential. In addition, the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 and Control of Substances hazardous to Health regulations (COSHH) help to ensure safe practices in the organization and avoidance of any kinds of physical or biological hazards Care Quality Commission, 2012).
To ensure the safeguarding of the clients and staffs, ISA invented a vetting scheme which is a policy that can check the responsibilities of employers to follow the organizational policies and ensures the safeguarding of children and elderly patients. Procedures like extended staff training, CPD are the useful facilities which influences patient’s safety. In addition, the safeguarding vulnerable adult through the POVA policy is used. For safeguarding of children and vulnerable adults, enhanced disclosure can be implemented.
While analyzing the policies and procedure, it can be said that the health care staffs should follow the policies including safeguarding policy, waste disposal policies, reporting of accidents policy, risk management policy, fire evacuation security policy and food safety policies. All the stakeholders should be responsible for having compliance with these policies and procedures. The health care staffs and employees have important role in following satisfactory standards in their practice, completing the risk assessment for reducing risk and empowering others to play their roles efficiently Great Britain. (Department of Health, 2012). The service users are also responsible for following organizational norms like keeping calm, assisting care workers, contributing in harm reduction. Staffs are also responsible to provide high quality service to enhance organizational success. Reporting and maintaining records of incidents and emergencies are also responsibility of the staffs. In addition, the National Health Service trust and local authorities have responsibilities to review the performance of organization and report any improvement and cautions. The service users and visitors should know their limits of responsibilities (Care Quality Commission, 2012).
Promotion of individual’s safety through health and safety legislation, policy and procedures in health and social care settings
For promoting safety in the health and social care organization, the policies and procedures as well as the norms related to the legislations are put in such place from where everyone can see them like posters, guest speakers, promotion in activities and awareness days. To promote the health and safety in the organization, the staffs are responsible for their compliance with the organizational policies and regulation. The employers are responsible for reviewing the performance of staffs to enhance the quality of care of the employees. The employees would have compliance to six health and social care policies highlighted in the previous section for promoting health and safety in the settings (Care Quality Commission, 2012).  
Risk assessment activity
There are five steps of risk assessment in the health and social care.

Step1: Identifying hazard

Step 2: Who are at risk

Step 3: Assessment of risk by calculation of degree of risk

Step 4: Record finding

Step 5: Review of assessment

Risk of fall and injury

Child using wheelchair and visual impairment

High risk. Severity is 4/4.

Severe injury can be resulted

Based on the child protection act and health and safety at workplace act, all the assessment results and related activities would be reviewed before setting the plan of outing.

Hindrance in  participation in events and can be subjected to accidents

Child having hearing impairment

Low risk of psychological hazard. Severity is 1/4

Child could be depressed and the self-esteem could be lowered which can result in depression in future

Difficulty in understanding instructions about the outing, enhance risk of unsafe behaviour

Children with learning difficulties

Medium risk of physical and psychological risk. Severity is 2/4.

Could result in lower self-esteem and physical injury due to not following guidance while being outside of the care home

Biological hazard from food

All the children with disabilities

High risk of biological hazard of consuming unhealthy food. Severity is 3/4.

Can result in serious health issue due to consumption of infected food

Cleaning chemicals left on the floor

All the children with disabilities

High risk of chemical risk. Severity is 4/4.

Children could hold the chemicals which could cause severe external or internal physical injury

Assessment of hazards in risk assessment
Through the help of the risk assessment program, the hazards for the given case scenario have been identified in the health and social care context. While assessing the children’s health needs, it has been analyzed that due to their disabilities; there would be a number of potential hazards raised while planning an outing for them. In this context, the risk assessment program identified five potential hazards which could have a negative impact upon children’s physical and mental health. The assessment of these hazards was done via the assessment or calculation of severity of risks raised from these hazards. After calculation the severity, the risk from each hazards are calculated through the multiplication of each hazards with severity. After assessment, the risks are recorded for taking further action to reduce these risks. The final step is the review and monitoring of the risk (Glasby, 2012). Here, all the children has some specific difficulties and thus their risk are different. It has been assessed that some common risk factors are there which could harm all the children and some risk are specific. While reviewing the risk, clear instruction should be collected from the safety officer. The review would include analysis of critical control like HACCP guidelines in food safety; legislations related to hazard control would be implemented (Cuadra, 2012).
Recommendation for minimizing the risk of service user group
Through a number of ways, the risk of children from those hazards could be minimized. These are as follows:
Advanced training of staffs- Health care staffs should be trained appropriately for handling children with difficulties in different settings. During training, staffs would be provided the hazard analysis and prevention guidelines including HAPPC to ensure children safety in different settings.
Providing leaflets to children- It would help children to know their responsibilities while being outside of the care home premises. It would enhance their self confidence to deal with hazards in unknown place.  
Ensuring the provision of hygienic foods- It would ensure the reducing of infection from unsafe food. A care worker should be appointed who would review children’s activity during the outing for safeguarding.
Reviewing the site of outing for hazards before taking children- Before planning the outing, the place to visit should be reviewed for ensuring hazard free environment.
Using ICT technologies for children with learning difficulties- Using ICT technologies during their classes and it can also be used during the provision of instructions related to outing. In would help the children to ensure their safe practices.
In addition, the child who have hearing impairment would have to give an hearing aid and the child who uses wheelchair would be provided with wrist bands with alarm for informing immediately after addressing risk.
Physical, intellectual, emotional and social development through different life stages
Pregnancy
Pregnancy begins with when a sperm penetrates an egg and the federalized egg starts to divide. After some days, the egg divides enough to develop the size of a pinhead.  The cells then travel to the lining of uterus where they are anchored. Right after being anchored, those cells develop an embryo (Del et al., 2014). That embryo begins to grow in order to create features such as hands, ears, mouth, feet and heartbeat. Three trimesters are seen during pregnancy including first trimester that stays until 13th week of pregnancy, second trimester that stays from week 13 to week 27 and third trimester that lasts from 28th week to the birth (Edelstein et al., 2014).
Physically a baby would be able to rotate their heads towards any contact they get on the cheek. This expression is known as rooting impulse that helps a baby to get the bottle into their lips to feed. Another expression is called grasp impulse within which a baby can grasp the finger placed on his palm (Labouvie, 2015).  If a newborn baby is held up right when their feet are stirring the floor, they will make activities as if they are trying to talk. This is called walking reflex.
Intellectually a baby can recognize sounds as their brains grow fast within this stage. They can make several sounds as their vocabulary increases.
Emotionally a baby experiences a measured development of emotions such as happiness and enjoyment. They can show their interests towards foods and games,
Socially, an infant starts to enjoy their routines such as bath times, feeding and sleeping. They would also start to copy the actions of adults.
Childhood (4 years to 10 years)
During this time, children begin to grow progressively than the infancy stage.  They also learn to develop motor skills such as writing. In childhood stage, children generally gain near about 3kg weight and 5.8 cm height per year (Stringhini et al., 2015).
In the childhood stage, children become capable of communicating with other people. They also develop an awareness to decide what is right and what is wrong. Their brains continue to grow faster during this stage.
Like the previous stage, children are able to establish a wider range of emotions such as happiness, disappointment, and negativity.
 In this stage, children start to share things with their acquaintances and siblings (Lopresti, 2013). The number of people a children knows begins to develop because of friends that they will make during school. They will learn to compare themselves with other people after reaching this life stage.
Adolescence (11 years to 18 years)
During this stage of life cycle boys and girls experiences different physical growths. Girls experience periods, development of breast and widening of hips. On the other hand, boys experience voice breaks, chest broadening, wet dreams and growth of penis.
Intellectually children begin to gain more connections as they start their secondary schools. As a result of rising hormones, they become able to think independently (Lopresti, 2013).
Children experience a change of mood continuously as a part of their emotions during this period. They can show their stress and worry during the times of exams.
Socially, people will become more independent as they start to spend time in attending parties overnight. They also become experimental as they try out drugs, alcohol, sex and different friendship groups. Negotiation skills are also developed during this time of the life cycle.
Adulthood (19 years to 65 years)
During the period of 18 to 28 years, young adults can experience most their physical growth. Older adults lose some of their strength and speed when they reach the end of their life stage.  Old adults experience loss of hair, spectacles and problems related to hearing.
During this time, the chances are low that an old adult can develop new skills. They are mostly left alone or experience the raising of grand children (Stringhini et al., 2015). At the end of this life cycle, people start to forget things and their memory becomes weak.
Emotionally people will become short tempered during this period of life cycle. They contribute little and start to find faults in each work performed by other people.
Potential effects of five different life factors
Important five factors that could create an impact on the development of an individual are  known as Genetic, Biological, Environmental, socioeconomic and lifestyle. All these factors are described in the table below,

Genetic

Biological

Environmental

Socioeconomic

Lifestyle (choices related to diet)

Psoriasis: It is a general skin problems that is currently affecting almost 2% of the world’s population. It can affect men and women of any age.

Babies of those mothers who smoke are likely to born prematurely and with a very low birth weight.
They also include poor lung function and get painful deceases such as inflammation of the middle ear.

Social problems: social problems include problems in schools, stress and anxiety, consumption of alcohol and drugs and criminal behavior.
Educational problems: This includes troublesome behavior, bullying and decreased academic achievements.

Peer groups are developed that includes people who share similar characteristics and interests. Similarities are seen in education level and ethnic background.

Life style of people varies as for example, some people  loves to take a diet that contains unhealthy foods. However, some people are forced to consume such foods because of their poverty or any other reason.

Potential effects of five different life factors
Influences of two predictable and two unpredictable major life events on the development of an individual.
Among predictable life events, the major events mentioned below,
Parting home
This most conventional life event definitely creates an influence on an individual’s development. Firstly, due to lack of cooking experience the physical development of a person who has left his home will be affected (Layard et al., 2014).  Absence of nutrition and proper food forces a person to take drugs and alcohol that will force to either gain or lose weight.
Beginning of school
This is another expected life event that is bound to create positive impacts on a child. In schools children are not only served but also served healthy food. Therefore, children who cannot have healthy food in their houses can get the same in their schools that helps to develop their physic (Bailey et al., 2013). Besides, schools would also help to develop a child emotionally as they will become more independent and will develop his own group of people.
Some unpredictable events are,
Accident or illness
Illness is a predictable life event that every person experiences during his life cycle. In some of the illnesses, it is possible that the consequences are permanent. In those cases, some people might experience disability for their whole life.
Changes in relationship
The more a child grows, the more he changes as a people. A child either can grow together or can grow alone. Relationship can either make a child stronger or weaker in his future life. Therefore, it is obvious that people can come out of a relation where they are not getting attention, live and affection (Sirgy & Wu, 2013). However, breaking a long-term relation can also create impacts on people mentally and physically.
Nature-nurture debate for individual’s development
Nature is referred to the behavioral aspects which are inherited in genes. In contrast, nurture is the behavioral traits which are acquired from surrounding environment. In the development of an individual both nature and nurture has important roles, a person has behavioral traits acquired from both nature and nurture. For example, a person has curly hair; another person has blue eyes or sharp nose. All of these are acquired from the inherited genes from individual’s parents. On the other hand, there is a strong connection within nature and nurture in the development of individual. If a person have an inherited gene for height but malnourished in childhood, the person would not have that much height which was expected as an influence of nature (Bailey et al., 2013).
Evaluation of nature and nurture’s effect on development
The physical development was connected with nature. The genes inherited from mother and father makes a person beautiful. A good looking female can experience sexual abuse in childhood which can have impact upon adulthood. A beautiful girl can choose modeling or acting as career option. It is the effect of nurture.
The inherited genes influence in which way a person would think and response. On the other hand, thinking and judgment can be influenced by the environment where a child grows which affects the decisions taken in adulthood (Layard et al., 2014). 
The beauty of a girl can promote her abuse in childhood which can have a major impact upon emotional development. Childhood abuse is the major reason of adulthood violence. It is the effect of nurture.  
Social development is influenced by the effect of nurture. In childhood, if a girl experience abuse, negative sense of inferiority can make her unsocial.
 
Theories of agingActivity theory- According to this theory, the personal level of activity influences a person’s view and satisfaction. Thus, if the aged person remains physically and mentally active, it will enhance his well being.Disengagement theory- According to this theory, “aging is the mutual and inevitable disengagement which results in decreased interaction within aged person and others in the society”.M2: Relation of ageing theory with individual’s developmentAccording to the activity theory, if a person remains active throughout the aged stage, it would affect positively upon his health. On the other hand, according to disagreement theory, with age a person’s interaction with society decreases and it has a negative impact upon his health and well being.D2: Evaluation of influence of theory of aging on HSC provisionDuring the aging process, disagreement and activity theory supports the provision of palliative care to the older adults for promoting their health and well being. According to these theories, their social involvement should be enhanced and emotional support should be provided in health and social care (Rutter, 2012).P5: Physical and psychological changes associated with ageingPhysical changes associated with aging includes weakened immune system, less elastic and wrinkled skin, enhance tendency of bone fracture, weakened muscle, poor vision and hair impairment. 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Policy Press.Great Britain. Department of Health. (2012). Health and Social Care Act 2012: Chapter 7, Explanatory Notes. The Stationery Office.Ingleby, D. (2012). Ethnicity, migration and the ‘social determinants of health’agenda. Psychosocial Intervention, 21(3), 331-341.Kongstvedt, P. R. (2012). Essentials of managed health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.Labouvie-Vief, G. (2015). Cognitive–Emotional Development in Infants. InIntegrating Emotions and Cognition Throughout the Lifespan (pp. 45-66). Springer International Publishing.Layard, R., Clark, A. E., Cornaglia, F., Powdthavee, N., & Vernoit, J. (2014). What predicts a successful life? A life‐course model of well‐being. The Economic Journal, 124(580), F720-F738.Lopresti, A. L., Hood, S. D., & Drummond, P. D. (2013). A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: diet, sleep and exercise. Journal of affective disorders, 148(1), 12-27.Mechanic, D. (2012). Seizing opportunities under the Affordable Care Act for transforming the mental and behavioral health system. Health Affairs, 31(2), 376-382.Middleton, B., Bloomrosen, M., Dente, M. A., Hashmat, B., Koppel, R., Overhage, J. M., … & Zhang, J. (2013). Enhancing patient safety and quality of care by improving the usability of electronic health record systems: recommendations from AMIA. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 20(e1), e2-e8.Rosenbaum, S. (2012). Law and the American health care system. Foundation Press.Rutter, M. (2012). Achievements and challenges in the biology of environmental effects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,109(Supplement 2), 17149-17153.Ryan, P. B., Madigan, D., Stang, P. E., Marc Overhage, J., Racoosin, J. A., & Hartzema, A. G. (2012). Empirical assessment of methods for risk identification in healthcare data: results from the experiments of the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership. Statistics in medicine, 31(30), 4401-4415.Sirgy, M. J., & Wu, J. (2013). The pleasant life, the engaged life, and the meaningful life: What about the balanced life?. In The exploration of happiness (pp. 175-191). Springer Netherlands.Stringhini, S., Polidoro, S., Sacerdote, C., Kelly, R. S., van Veldhoven, K., Agnoli, C., … & Mattiello, A. (2015). Life-course socioeconomic status and DNA methylation of genes regulating inflammation. International journal of epidemiology, 44(4), 1320-1330. 

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Argyle

Argyle

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Argyle

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Argyle

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Question:
Explain Argyle’s Communication cycle .
 
Answer:

Importance of effective communication and interpersonal interaction while dealing with service users
In the health and social care settings, communication is the key aspect for successful outcomes. Through effective communication and interpersonal interaction a positive relationship can be established within the health care providers and health care users. An effective communication enhances the quality of care as well as quickens the recovery process of the patient (Barry & Edgman-Levitan, 2012). While interacting with the service users, a number of ways are there through which effective communication can be established.
With the help of examples, the importance of effective communication and interpersonal interactions in the health and social care could be analyzed. For example, while working with a multi-disciplinary group, the professional should have diverse communication skill to express his own perspectives to the team members which participating in the care planning of the patient. In another example, while dealing a patient of aboriginal culture, the patient might not understand the medical terminologies used by the health care professionals, in this context; the professional should have diverse language knowledge to interact with the patient via a satisfactory communication (Glasby, 2012). In addition, while working with a mental health patient, for example with a dementia patient, the patient might need emotional support and through the non-verbal communication like positive facial expression, touch and reflective listening, the efficiency of interpersonal interaction can be built. In contrast, while communicating with the professional in higher level in the health care hierarchy, the non verbal skills would include showing respect and obedience and verbal skills would include use of medical terminologies for enhancing the efficiency of communication. Effective communication is also needed for applying appropriate communication forms at right place like messaging, signing, symbols and use of technology (Ingleby, 2012).  
Health and Social care theories
Argyle’s Communication cycle
Argyle’s theory of communication cycle focuses on six core concepts which come in the form of cycle, in step-by-step manner. In the first step, the idea first occurs and the message is coded in the second stage when the idea needs to be shared. In this stage the idea is placed into a form of communication and it could be any kinds of verbal or nonverbal communication style. In the next step, the encoded message is sent to the other person, for example speaking, signing written document or other methods of communication. In the fourth step, other person would receive the message (Rosenbaum, 2012). In the next step, the other person would decode the message by making assumptions to what have been said in the message. In the last step, the person would understand the message by establishing a communicating means.
Tuckman’s Stage of Group interaction
Tuckman’s stage of group interaction is a model which describes the process of group development through four phases. These stages are forming, storming, norming and performing. Through these four stages, a successful and effective team can be built. In the first stage, forming, the team members meet and learn about the challenges and opportunities and understand the goals and the team begins to mature (Cuadra, 2012). In the next step, storming, the team members would start to push against the barriers and attempt to cope with the barriers. This phase include failure and improvements through those failures. In the next step, norming, the team members would be responsible for their tasks and become aware of their common goals. In the last step, performing, the team is able to perform assigned task after overcoming barriers and attempt to reach the goals set (Cowles, 2012).  
Impact of theories on health and social care communication
The Argyle’s Communication cycle helps the health and social care workers to build on their communication skills and to understand the process of communication through which they can implement improved interpersonal interaction with the service users. On the other hand, the Tuckman’s stages of group interaction help the health and social care worker to understand the stages of an efficient team development (Middleton et al., 2013). Through this model, the staffs would be aware of the challenges and opportunities in communication within a multi-disciplinary team in the health care settings.
Strength and weaknesses of communication and interpersonal interactions
While analyzing the above mentioned theories in health and social care context, it has been seen that the strength of Argyle theory is that the message is fully understood by the person being communicated while implementing this model in communication and interpersonal interaction. The weakness of one-to-one communication is that the message can go in wrong direction and thereby creating a miscommunication. If the person is not aware of all types of communication like a symbolic interaction, the message would be difficult to understand by the person (Cunningham et al., 2012).
Factors influencing communication and interpersonal interactions in health and social care environment
There are several factors which can influence the communication and interpersonal interactions both positively and negatively. These factors include the environmental factors like settings where the communication is being done; it might not be suitable for the particular type of communication. For example, while communicating with the higher authorities in the organization, formal communication is needed always (Barnett et al., 2012). In addition, while communicating with the patient or interacting with the family member of a service user about the health issues, if there is so much noise in background, it would be difficult to make the communication efficient. Sometimes, due to inappropriate seating, lighting or space, the effective communication and interpersonal interaction could be hampered. Time is a major factor. If the communication last for adequate time, the message could be understood properly by the other person. There are also personal or internal factors which could affect the communication. The person, to whom the communicative message is being sent, should be attentive and should have good listening skills which could enhance the efficiency of the interaction (Brach et al., 2012). If the person provides a good response, a good interpersonal relationship could be established.
The barriers of communication include language needs or preferences, which is often faced by the health care providers while dealing with Foreign Service user or cross cultural patients. If the person has disability, sensory impairment, depression, different values and beliefs depression can be the barriers. Sometimes, clash in different personality, self-esteem, submissiveness and negative assumptions become the barriers of communication within health care team. In other context, if the person use most of the jargons in their words, it would be more difficult to understand the message (Aveyard, 2014).  
Strategies used in health and social care to overcome barriers of effective interpersonal communication
In the section below, some common barriers of health and social care settings would be discussed and the strategies for overcoming these barriers would also be discussed.
Language needs- As different cross-cultural patients are dealt in health and social care settings; they might use different languages, thus the health care staffs should be trained for diverse languages to understand the needs of cross cultural patients (Glasby & Dickinson, 2014).
Disability- The disables patients sometimes cannot accommodate with the health care workers, at that moment, the health care workers should use technological aids for enhancing their communication efficiency. For example, hearing aids, voice activated software, loop system, alarms, text phones and minicons can be used to combat with disability.
Poor lighting, seating arrangement- If the environment is not suitable, often the interpersonal communication gets hindrance. Thus, the environment should be suitable. Brighter light, sound proof room, reduction of background noise, keeping the place calm, can increase the interpersonal interaction’s efficiency.
Depression- While assessing depressed patients, the staffs should show respect, positive facial expression, appropriate non-verbal communicative signs and symbols should be executed to make the patient feel safe and empowered to communicate (Brüggemann, Wijma & Swahnberg, 2012).
Health issues- If a person has health issues, effective communication is hampered and understanding the preferences of the patient would help to establish a positive relationship with the patient, thereby enhancing efficiency of interaction. In addition, alternative forms of communication like sign and symbols can be used (Kongstvedt, 2012).
Jargons usage- Appropriate training can help the staffs to understand professional language in health care settings. In addition, penalties can be given in the case of jargon or slang usage.
 
Strength and weaknesses of communication strategies to overcome communication barriers
The communication strategies discussed earlier has so many strengths but also has weaknesses depending upon the settings where the strategies are being implemented. The strengths of these communication strategies is that in most of the cases, the strategies help the professionals to promote face-to-face interaction which helps to avoid communication barriers. In addition, this strategy of communication has a part of learning which is very important while dealing with multidisciplinary stakeholders (Mechanic, 2012). The communications strategies help to improve the two-way communication process. After getting training the open feedback would be would be encouraged. In contrast, the weaknesses would include failure of considering the needs of audience. Inadequate evaluation of client’s needs in health care settings can cause major inconvenience in communication process. In some settings, the technical aids are not available to assist the patient.
Evaluation of communication strategies for overcoming communication barriers
While evaluating the communication strategies, it has been revealed that these strategies would help to get trained and skilled staffs who would ensure the safety and security of the clients through effective communication. In addition, these strategies would make the staffs enable to work in multidisciplinary settings (Ryan et al., 2012).
Assessment of multi-disciplinary working for improvement of health service provision
Multidisciplinary team includes all the professionals working in an association as a team. Thus, working in a multi-disciplinary team can help to avoid a number of inefficiencies of a staff working individually. In this context, while working in a multidisciplinary team, communication barriers can also be avoided. While working in a multi-disciplinary team, if one staff is unable to communicate with a client due to cultural difference or other issue, other staffs can guide him or can directly communicate with the client to resolve the problem. On the other hand, it can help the client to provide holistic care services, as in a multi-disciplinary health team; there are GP, specialized doctor, nurses, psychiatrist, counselor, physiotherapist and others. Therefore, all the medical assistance could be provided from this team immediately, thereby assuring the highest quality of medical service (Aveyard, 2014).
Evaluation of effectiveness of examples of working in multidisciplinary health service provision
With the help of examples, the effectiveness of working in a multidisciplinary health care team can be evaluated. While dealing a geriatric patient recently experienced a fall, the patient was initially assessed for her medical and physical needs. After assessment, the patient was assisted by the counselor for enhancing her trust towards the health care team. The nurse assisted in her ADLs while the physiotherapist helped in combating with the injury of fall. In this way, a high quality service was provided. In another example, while working in a multidisciplinary team, a patient came in the emergency department after a severe accident. The multidisciplinary team undertaken proper action after assessing the patient’s condition immediately which helped to save the patient’s life through the avoidance of inconvenience and delay in treatment (Aveyard, 2014).
Potential hazards and harm raised in health and social care setting

Describe the hazard

Explain why it is a hazard. What harm may be caused and to who?

What are staff expected to do in order to minimise the risk?

Medication error-Biological
 
 

It is a biological hazard. In the residential care home, there are patients with cognitive impairment like dementia, they are unable to memorize their medications and thus, there is chance of missing medication dose which can be hazardous to patient’s health.   

To minimize the risk, the staffs should keep the electronic health records and should keep daily routines of medications for each patient.

Nosocomial infection- Biological
 
 

Nosocomial infections are the infections acquired from the hospital or health care settings. If one resident of the residential care acquire an infection, the chance of infection to others enhances to the other residents.

To minimize the risk of nosocomial infection, the health care staffs should regularly monitor each patient’s health and report any medical issue, if identified; the resident should be separately treated for minimizing infection.

Risk of fall and injury due to wet floor – Physical
 
 

It is a physical risk to the residents in the care home. The hazard can harm both staffs and care residents. It has been revealed that some residents has physical impairment, thus inappropriate assistance can enhance the risk of fall and injury. On the other hand, wet floor can enhance the risk of fall of health care staffs also 

Risk assessment should be done on regular basis and based on the results the settings should be modified to reduce the risk. For patients with physical disabilities, wheelchair, walkers can be provided and for patients with sensory impairment alarms, pagers can be provided to report immediately upon addressing hazards. For the employees, the health and safety act at work 1974 should be followed.

Contact with hazardous chemicals- Chemical
 
 

This chemical hazard can cause harm to both staffs and residents. The chemical hazards can be from toxic chemicals. Sometimes, harmful acid containers are kept open which can cause harm to the residents. In addition, the medication allergy can also harm residents.  

The organization should maintain log book for every chemical usage for keeping records of use. Residents should be assessed for medication or food allergy at the time of entry into the residential care home.

Abuse- Physical and psychological
 
 

This hazard is very important to be controlled as it can also harm the image of the organization along with the health of the victim. The abuse can be caused to the care user by the care providers or by the other residents. In addition, the staffs can also be abused by other staffs or higher authorities. It can cause psychological problems or physical injury to the victims.  

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Elder justice Act and other legislations against abusive behavior in health care should be included. The health care policies should include warnings and penalties for abusive behavior of staffs.

Stress of staffs for long shift hours- psychological
 
 

It can harm the staffs psychologically and cause harm to the service users also. It is because, when a staff would deal with a care user with a stressed mode, the chance of error would enhance and it would negatively affect upon the patient’s health

To reduce stress related hazard, staffs should be provided a comfortable environment with empowering activities. A proper stress management training session would be implemented for newly joined staffs.

Influence of legislation, policies and procedures relating to health, safety and security upon health and social care settings
There are a number of legislations in UK health and social care settings which are followed by the health care staffs to ensure healthy, safe and secured services provided by the organizations. The legislations and guidelines which are followed strictly in the health and social care settings include the Health and safety Act 1974 which promotes the safety or care users by ensuring the correct responsibility and accountability of health care staffs (Great Britain Department of Health, 2012). The manual handling operations regulation 1992 ensures that employees would try to eliminate manual handling operation to reduce risks, thereby promoting safety. The reporting of all injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulation 1995 ensures that the staffs would be accountable to report any kinds of above mentioned incidence to the higher authorities to combat with the situation. The data protection act 1998 ensures that all the personal information provided by patients would be kept confidential. In addition, the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 and Control of Substances hazardous to Health regulations (COSHH) help to ensure safe practices in the organization and avoidance of any kinds of physical or biological hazards Care Quality Commission, 2012).
To ensure the safeguarding of the clients and staffs, ISA invented a vetting scheme which is a policy that can check the responsibilities of employers to follow the organizational policies and ensures the safeguarding of children and elderly patients. Procedures like extended staff training, CPD are the useful facilities which influences patient’s safety. In addition, the safeguarding vulnerable adult through the POVA policy is used. For safeguarding of children and vulnerable adults, enhanced disclosure can be implemented.
While analyzing the policies and procedure, it can be said that the health care staffs should follow the policies including safeguarding policy, waste disposal policies, reporting of accidents policy, risk management policy, fire evacuation security policy and food safety policies. All the stakeholders should be responsible for having compliance with these policies and procedures. The health care staffs and employees have important role in following satisfactory standards in their practice, completing the risk assessment for reducing risk and empowering others to play their roles efficiently Great Britain. (Department of Health, 2012). The service users are also responsible for following organizational norms like keeping calm, assisting care workers, contributing in harm reduction. Staffs are also responsible to provide high quality service to enhance organizational success. Reporting and maintaining records of incidents and emergencies are also responsibility of the staffs. In addition, the National Health Service trust and local authorities have responsibilities to review the performance of organization and report any improvement and cautions. The service users and visitors should know their limits of responsibilities (Care Quality Commission, 2012).
Promotion of individual’s safety through health and safety legislation, policy and procedures in health and social care settings
For promoting safety in the health and social care organization, the policies and procedures as well as the norms related to the legislations are put in such place from where everyone can see them like posters, guest speakers, promotion in activities and awareness days. To promote the health and safety in the organization, the staffs are responsible for their compliance with the organizational policies and regulation. The employers are responsible for reviewing the performance of staffs to enhance the quality of care of the employees. The employees would have compliance to six health and social care policies highlighted in the previous section for promoting health and safety in the settings (Care Quality Commission, 2012).  
Risk assessment activity
There are five steps of risk assessment in the health and social care.

Step1: Identifying hazard

Step 2: Who are at risk

Step 3: Assessment of risk by calculation of degree of risk

Step 4: Record finding

Step 5: Review of assessment

Risk of fall and injury

Child using wheelchair and visual impairment

High risk. Severity is 4/4.

Severe injury can be resulted

Based on the child protection act and health and safety at workplace act, all the assessment results and related activities would be reviewed before setting the plan of outing.

Hindrance in  participation in events and can be subjected to accidents

Child having hearing impairment

Low risk of psychological hazard. Severity is 1/4

Child could be depressed and the self-esteem could be lowered which can result in depression in future

Difficulty in understanding instructions about the outing, enhance risk of unsafe behaviour

Children with learning difficulties

Medium risk of physical and psychological risk. Severity is 2/4.

Could result in lower self-esteem and physical injury due to not following guidance while being outside of the care home

Biological hazard from food

All the children with disabilities

High risk of biological hazard of consuming unhealthy food. Severity is 3/4.

Can result in serious health issue due to consumption of infected food

Cleaning chemicals left on the floor

All the children with disabilities

High risk of chemical risk. Severity is 4/4.

Children could hold the chemicals which could cause severe external or internal physical injury

Assessment of hazards in risk assessment
Through the help of the risk assessment program, the hazards for the given case scenario have been identified in the health and social care context. While assessing the children’s health needs, it has been analyzed that due to their disabilities; there would be a number of potential hazards raised while planning an outing for them. In this context, the risk assessment program identified five potential hazards which could have a negative impact upon children’s physical and mental health. The assessment of these hazards was done via the assessment or calculation of severity of risks raised from these hazards. After calculation the severity, the risk from each hazards are calculated through the multiplication of each hazards with severity. After assessment, the risks are recorded for taking further action to reduce these risks. The final step is the review and monitoring of the risk (Glasby, 2012). Here, all the children has some specific difficulties and thus their risk are different. It has been assessed that some common risk factors are there which could harm all the children and some risk are specific. While reviewing the risk, clear instruction should be collected from the safety officer. The review would include analysis of critical control like HACCP guidelines in food safety; legislations related to hazard control would be implemented (Cuadra, 2012).
Recommendation for minimizing the risk of service user group
Through a number of ways, the risk of children from those hazards could be minimized. These are as follows:
Advanced training of staffs- Health care staffs should be trained appropriately for handling children with difficulties in different settings. During training, staffs would be provided the hazard analysis and prevention guidelines including HAPPC to ensure children safety in different settings.
Providing leaflets to children- It would help children to know their responsibilities while being outside of the care home premises. It would enhance their self confidence to deal with hazards in unknown place.  
Ensuring the provision of hygienic foods- It would ensure the reducing of infection from unsafe food. A care worker should be appointed who would review children’s activity during the outing for safeguarding.
Reviewing the site of outing for hazards before taking children- Before planning the outing, the place to visit should be reviewed for ensuring hazard free environment.
Using ICT technologies for children with learning difficulties- Using ICT technologies during their classes and it can also be used during the provision of instructions related to outing. In would help the children to ensure their safe practices.
In addition, the child who have hearing impairment would have to give an hearing aid and the child who uses wheelchair would be provided with wrist bands with alarm for informing immediately after addressing risk.
Physical, intellectual, emotional and social development through different life stages
Pregnancy
Pregnancy begins with when a sperm penetrates an egg and the federalized egg starts to divide. After some days, the egg divides enough to develop the size of a pinhead.  The cells then travel to the lining of uterus where they are anchored. Right after being anchored, those cells develop an embryo (Del et al., 2014). That embryo begins to grow in order to create features such as hands, ears, mouth, feet and heartbeat. Three trimesters are seen during pregnancy including first trimester that stays until 13th week of pregnancy, second trimester that stays from week 13 to week 27 and third trimester that lasts from 28th week to the birth (Edelstein et al., 2014).
Physically a baby would be able to rotate their heads towards any contact they get on the cheek. This expression is known as rooting impulse that helps a baby to get the bottle into their lips to feed. Another expression is called grasp impulse within which a baby can grasp the finger placed on his palm (Labouvie, 2015).  If a newborn baby is held up right when their feet are stirring the floor, they will make activities as if they are trying to talk. This is called walking reflex.
Intellectually a baby can recognize sounds as their brains grow fast within this stage. They can make several sounds as their vocabulary increases.
Emotionally a baby experiences a measured development of emotions such as happiness and enjoyment. They can show their interests towards foods and games,
Socially, an infant starts to enjoy their routines such as bath times, feeding and sleeping. They would also start to copy the actions of adults.
Childhood (4 years to 10 years)
During this time, children begin to grow progressively than the infancy stage.  They also learn to develop motor skills such as writing. In childhood stage, children generally gain near about 3kg weight and 5.8 cm height per year (Stringhini et al., 2015).
In the childhood stage, children become capable of communicating with other people. They also develop an awareness to decide what is right and what is wrong. Their brains continue to grow faster during this stage.
Like the previous stage, children are able to establish a wider range of emotions such as happiness, disappointment, and negativity.
 In this stage, children start to share things with their acquaintances and siblings (Lopresti, 2013). The number of people a children knows begins to develop because of friends that they will make during school. They will learn to compare themselves with other people after reaching this life stage.
Adolescence (11 years to 18 years)
During this stage of life cycle boys and girls experiences different physical growths. Girls experience periods, development of breast and widening of hips. On the other hand, boys experience voice breaks, chest broadening, wet dreams and growth of penis.
Intellectually children begin to gain more connections as they start their secondary schools. As a result of rising hormones, they become able to think independently (Lopresti, 2013).
Children experience a change of mood continuously as a part of their emotions during this period. They can show their stress and worry during the times of exams.
Socially, people will become more independent as they start to spend time in attending parties overnight. They also become experimental as they try out drugs, alcohol, sex and different friendship groups. Negotiation skills are also developed during this time of the life cycle.
Adulthood (19 years to 65 years)
During the period of 18 to 28 years, young adults can experience most their physical growth. Older adults lose some of their strength and speed when they reach the end of their life stage.  Old adults experience loss of hair, spectacles and problems related to hearing.
During this time, the chances are low that an old adult can develop new skills. They are mostly left alone or experience the raising of grand children (Stringhini et al., 2015). At the end of this life cycle, people start to forget things and their memory becomes weak.
Emotionally people will become short tempered during this period of life cycle. They contribute little and start to find faults in each work performed by other people.
Potential effects of five different life factors
Important five factors that could create an impact on the development of an individual are  known as Genetic, Biological, Environmental, socioeconomic and lifestyle. All these factors are described in the table below,

Genetic

Biological

Environmental

Socioeconomic

Lifestyle (choices related to diet)

Psoriasis: It is a general skin problems that is currently affecting almost 2% of the world’s population. It can affect men and women of any age.

Babies of those mothers who smoke are likely to born prematurely and with a very low birth weight.
They also include poor lung function and get painful deceases such as inflammation of the middle ear.

Social problems: social problems include problems in schools, stress and anxiety, consumption of alcohol and drugs and criminal behavior.
Educational problems: This includes troublesome behavior, bullying and decreased academic achievements.

Peer groups are developed that includes people who share similar characteristics and interests. Similarities are seen in education level and ethnic background.

Life style of people varies as for example, some people  loves to take a diet that contains unhealthy foods. However, some people are forced to consume such foods because of their poverty or any other reason.

Potential effects of five different life factors
Influences of two predictable and two unpredictable major life events on the development of an individual.
Among predictable life events, the major events mentioned below,
Parting home
This most conventional life event definitely creates an influence on an individual’s development. Firstly, due to lack of cooking experience the physical development of a person who has left his home will be affected (Layard et al., 2014).  Absence of nutrition and proper food forces a person to take drugs and alcohol that will force to either gain or lose weight.
Beginning of school
This is another expected life event that is bound to create positive impacts on a child. In schools children are not only served but also served healthy food. Therefore, children who cannot have healthy food in their houses can get the same in their schools that helps to develop their physic (Bailey et al., 2013). Besides, schools would also help to develop a child emotionally as they will become more independent and will develop his own group of people.
Some unpredictable events are,
Accident or illness
Illness is a predictable life event that every person experiences during his life cycle. In some of the illnesses, it is possible that the consequences are permanent. In those cases, some people might experience disability for their whole life.
Changes in relationship
The more a child grows, the more he changes as a people. A child either can grow together or can grow alone. Relationship can either make a child stronger or weaker in his future life. Therefore, it is obvious that people can come out of a relation where they are not getting attention, live and affection (Sirgy & Wu, 2013). However, breaking a long-term relation can also create impacts on people mentally and physically.
Nature-nurture debate for individual’s development
Nature is referred to the behavioral aspects which are inherited in genes. In contrast, nurture is the behavioral traits which are acquired from surrounding environment. In the development of an individual both nature and nurture has important roles, a person has behavioral traits acquired from both nature and nurture. For example, a person has curly hair; another person has blue eyes or sharp nose. All of these are acquired from the inherited genes from individual’s parents. On the other hand, there is a strong connection within nature and nurture in the development of individual. If a person have an inherited gene for height but malnourished in childhood, the person would not have that much height which was expected as an influence of nature (Bailey et al., 2013).
Evaluation of nature and nurture’s effect on development
The physical development was connected with nature. The genes inherited from mother and father makes a person beautiful. A good looking female can experience sexual abuse in childhood which can have impact upon adulthood. A beautiful girl can choose modeling or acting as career option. It is the effect of nurture.
The inherited genes influence in which way a person would think and response. On the other hand, thinking and judgment can be influenced by the environment where a child grows which affects the decisions taken in adulthood (Layard et al., 2014). 
The beauty of a girl can promote her abuse in childhood which can have a major impact upon emotional development. Childhood abuse is the major reason of adulthood violence. It is the effect of nurture.  
Social development is influenced by the effect of nurture. In childhood, if a girl experience abuse, negative sense of inferiority can make her unsocial.
 
Theories of agingActivity theory- According to this theory, the personal level of activity influences a person’s view and satisfaction. Thus, if the aged person remains physically and mentally active, it will enhance his well being.Disengagement theory- According to this theory, “aging is the mutual and inevitable disengagement which results in decreased interaction within aged person and others in the society”.M2: Relation of ageing theory with individual’s developmentAccording to the activity theory, if a person remains active throughout the aged stage, it would affect positively upon his health. On the other hand, according to disagreement theory, with age a person’s interaction with society decreases and it has a negative impact upon his health and well being.D2: Evaluation of influence of theory of aging on HSC provisionDuring the aging process, disagreement and activity theory supports the provision of palliative care to the older adults for promoting their health and well being. According to these theories, their social involvement should be enhanced and emotional support should be provided in health and social care (Rutter, 2012).P5: Physical and psychological changes associated with ageingPhysical changes associated with aging includes weakened immune system, less elastic and wrinkled skin, enhance tendency of bone fracture, weakened muscle, poor vision and hair impairment. Psychological changes associated with aging are change of role, loss and grief, isolation and mood wing.Effect of self-esteem and self-confidence associated with ageingThe age related changes usually include vision and hearing impairment, mobility impairments which raise a sense of decreased self-esteem as the elder people becomes unable to complete their ADLs without other’s help. Loss of dear ones also makes older people isolated. Enhanced risk of fall and injury decreases their self-confidence also (Stringhini et al., 2015). Reference ListAveyard, H. (2014). Doing a literature review in health and social care: A practical guide. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).Bailey, R., Hillman, C., Arent, S., & Petitpas, A. (2013). Physical activity: an underestimated investment in human capital. Journal of physical activity and health, 10(3), 289-308.Barnett, K., Mercer, S. W., Norbury, M., Watt, G., Wyke, S., & Guthrie, B. (2012). Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet,380(9836), 37-43.Barry, M. J., & Edgman-Levitan, S. (2012). Shared decision making—the pinnacle of patient-centered care. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(9), 780-781.Brach, C., Keller, D., Hernandez, L. M., Baur, C., Dreyer, B., Schyve, P., … & Schillinger, D. (2012). Ten attributes of health literate health care organizations. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.Brüggemann, A. J., Wijma, B., & Swahnberg, K. (2012). Abuse in health care: a concept analysis. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 26(1), 123-132.Care Quality Commission. (2012). The state of health care and adult social care in England in 2011/12 (Vol. 763). The Stationery Office.Cowles, L. A. (2012). Social work in the health field: A care perspective. Routledge.Cuadra, C. B. (2012). Right of access to health care for undocumented migrants in EU: a comparative study of national policies. The European Journal of Public Health, 22(2), 267-271.Cunningham, F. C., Ranmuthugala, G., Plumb, J., Georgiou, A., Westbrook, J. I., & Braithwaite, J. (2012). Health professional networks as a vector for improving healthcare quality and safety: a systematic review. BMJ quality & safety, 21(3), 239-249.Del Boca, D., Flinn, C., & Wiswall, M. (2014). Household choices and child development. The Review of Economic Studies, 81(1), 137-185.Edelstein, W., Keller, M., & Schröder, E. (2014). Child development and social structure: A longitudinal study of individual differences. Paul B. Baltes/David L. Featherman/Richard M. Lerner: Life-span development and behavior. Bd, 10, 151-185.Glasby, J. (2012). Understanding health and social care. Policy Press.Glasby, J., & Dickinson, H. (2014). Partnership working in health and social care: what is integrated care and how can we deliver it?. Policy Press.Great Britain. Department of Health. (2012). Health and Social Care Act 2012: Chapter 7, Explanatory Notes. The Stationery Office.Ingleby, D. (2012). Ethnicity, migration and the ‘social determinants of health’agenda. Psychosocial Intervention, 21(3), 331-341.Kongstvedt, P. R. (2012). Essentials of managed health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.Labouvie-Vief, G. (2015). Cognitive–Emotional Development in Infants. InIntegrating Emotions and Cognition Throughout the Lifespan (pp. 45-66). Springer International Publishing.Layard, R., Clark, A. E., Cornaglia, F., Powdthavee, N., & Vernoit, J. (2014). What predicts a successful life? A life‐course model of well‐being. The Economic Journal, 124(580), F720-F738.Lopresti, A. L., Hood, S. D., & Drummond, P. D. (2013). A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: diet, sleep and exercise. Journal of affective disorders, 148(1), 12-27.Mechanic, D. (2012). Seizing opportunities under the Affordable Care Act for transforming the mental and behavioral health system. Health Affairs, 31(2), 376-382.Middleton, B., Bloomrosen, M., Dente, M. A., Hashmat, B., Koppel, R., Overhage, J. M., … & Zhang, J. (2013). Enhancing patient safety and quality of care by improving the usability of electronic health record systems: recommendations from AMIA. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 20(e1), e2-e8.Rosenbaum, S. (2012). Law and the American health care system. Foundation Press.Rutter, M. (2012). Achievements and challenges in the biology of environmental effects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,109(Supplement 2), 17149-17153.Ryan, P. B., Madigan, D., Stang, P. E., Marc Overhage, J., Racoosin, J. A., & Hartzema, A. G. (2012). Empirical assessment of methods for risk identification in healthcare data: results from the experiments of the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership. Statistics in medicine, 31(30), 4401-4415.Sirgy, M. J., & Wu, J. (2013). The pleasant life, the engaged life, and the meaningful life: What about the balanced life?. In The exploration of happiness (pp. 175-191). Springer Netherlands.Stringhini, S., Polidoro, S., Sacerdote, C., Kelly, R. S., van Veldhoven, K., Agnoli, C., … & Mattiello, A. (2015). Life-course socioeconomic status and DNA methylation of genes regulating inflammation. International journal of epidemiology, 44(4), 1320-1330. 

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