Autism Spectrum Disorder- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD)- ODD- and ICD parent guide – neurodevelopmental disorders essay examples

Autism Spectrum Disorder- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD)- ODD- and ICD parent guide – neurodevelopmental disorders essay examples

Discussion: Parent Guide

Note: You and your group will use the wiki function to develop three Parent Guides (one in Week 3, one in Week 7, and one in Week 10). A wiki is a site that allows collaborative editing by all users. Each group will have its own place to communicate and collaborate on the assignments. Once your group has completed each assignment, one member should transfer the information to its final format and submit it through the group submission link in the Discussion. Do not delete the assignment from the wiki format, as your Instructor will review this area to determine each member’s participation.

Collaboration is essential to accurate diagnosis of the conditions under consideration in this week. For this week’s Discussion, you practice collaboration by working in a group on developing a “Parent Guide,” which will serve as a teaching tool for parents with children who have been diagnosed with a specific mental health disorder.

It is recommended that you make your project as attractive as possible and consider using the finished product as teaching tools for families that you will work with in your own practices.

Learning Objectives
Students will:
Analyze signs and symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders
Analyze the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders
Analyze diagnosis and treatment methods for neurodevelopmental disorders
Evaluate Parent Guides

To Prepare for this Discussion:

Your Instructor will assign you to a group and a disorder by Day 1 of Week 2.
Review the resources concerning your assigned disorder.
Review the Blackboard Help website concerning wikis.
Use your group’s Discussion Board to design and develop the Parent Guide before posting to the group wiki. For further guidance, refer to the Accessing Group Discussions instructions below.

Using evidence-based research, design and develop a Parent Guide for your assigned disorder including:

Signs and symptoms
Pathophysiology
How the disorder is diagnosed
Treatment options

Provide a minimum of three academic references.

By Day 5

One designated group member should post the completed Parent Guide to the Discussion.

By Day 7

Respond to at least two other groups’ wikis by providing at least two contributions for improving or including in their Parent Guide and at least two things that you like about their guide.

Submission and Grading Information
Accessing Group Discussions and Wikis

To access your group’s discussion, click on the Parent Guide Groups link. Once you have clicked on the link, select your assigned team (e.g., Team A, Team B, Team C, etc.) to access your team’s home page. Select Group Discussion Board under the Group Tools menu to work on your participate in your group’s discussion.

To access your group’s wiki, click on the Parent Guide Groups link. Once you have clicked on the link, select your assigned team (e.g., Team A, Team B, Team C, etc.) to access your team’s home page.

Creating a Wiki Page

Create the first wiki topic page by entering the group’s wiki area and selecting Create Wiki Page. Use the group’s assigned disorder as the name of your wiki. Then add your Parent Guide in the Content text box. You can use the editor functions to format the text and include files, images, web links, multimedia, and mashups. Select Submit when you have completed the wiki page.

ADHD

¡ADHD

¡Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as the name implies, is a disease of the mind or brain characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity-impulsiveness, or a combination of both, (APA, 2013). ADHD is documented to present before age twelve and the symptoms must be continuous for no less than a long duration and disable functional status or cause poor executive function in a developed child. The signs must also not be secondary to any other medical issue to justify the diagnosis, (APA, (2013); NIMH, (2016).

¡The Group B Team will use the evidence-based research to design and develop a Parent Guide for our assigned disorder; ADHD including the signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, how the disorder ADHD is diagnosed and the treatment options available.

¡

¡Pathophysiology

¡Occurs in 5% of children

¡Exact cause is unclear

¡3 Risk Factors

¡Genetics

¡Environmental

¡Development

¡Genetics

¡Research is showing link to genes, but still ongoing

¡More likely if parent is diagnosed

¡Environmental

¡Behaviors

¡Lead Exposure

¡Development

¡Cigarette and alcohol use during pregnancy

¡Understanding the disorder helps better understand treatment options

¡

¡Signs and symptoms

¡Occurs before the age of 12

¡Inattention and/or Hyperactivity

¡Has to occur in more than one setting

¡Persists and Hinders functioning

¡Must be Present for 6 months

¡Three Categories

¡Inattention

¡Hyperactivity

¡Impulsivity

¡

(Javanbakhht, 2018).

¡

¡How is adhd diagnosed?

¡Most often problems at school

¡School brings it to parents attention

¡Based on thorough assessment and documentation of severity of symptoms

¡Gathering information

¡Rule out other causes

¡Differential
diagnosis

¡ODD

¡Intermittent Explosive Disorder

¡Autism Spectrum Disorders

¡Learning Disorders

¡Intellectual Development Disorders

¡Treatment Options

¡Stimulants

¡Amphetamines

¡Adderall, Adderall XR, Dexedrine, Dyanavel XR, Evekeo, ProCentra, Vyvanse

¡Methamphetamine

¡Desoxyn

¡Methylphenidate

¡Aptensio XR, Metadate ER, Concerta, Daytrana, Ritalin, Ritalin LA, Methylin, QuilliChew, Quillivant, Focalin

¡Treatment options

¡Non-stimulants

¡Atomoxetine (Strattera)

¡Clonidine (Kapvay)

¡Guanfacine (Intuniv)

¡Psychotherapy

¡Can help deal with problems interacting with others

¡Learn to make better choices

¡Family Therapy

¡Work through disruptive behaviors

¡Behavior Therapy

¡Work to develop better behavioral patterns

¡

¡What can parents do?

¡Be involved

¡Be safe with Medicines

¡Collaborate with your child’s School

¡Learn how to parent a child with ADHD

¡Connect with other parents for support

¡Summary

¡The American Academy of Pediatrics a leading authority in pediatric healthcare has given easy to follow guidelines that healthcare workers, parents, and caretakers of children suspected to be suffering from ADHD can follow. An evaluation of a child who shows problems and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity should be made followed by a diagnosis based on based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth edition (DSM-5) (CDC, 2018). The diagnosis should be from reports from the primary care clinician should include reports from parents or guardians, teachers, and/or other school and mental health clinicians involved in the child’s care (CDC, 2018). Any drugs prescribed should be approved by FDA and preferably both medication and behavior should be used together (CDC, 2018). The clinician should monitor and alter the doses to achieve maximum benefit (CDC, 2018).

¡Parents of children with ADHD should not feel alone since there are resources that can help them in the care of these children. When children are helped to structure their environment, their anxiety diminishes, and it is beneficial for parents and teachers to work together to develop a concrete set of expectations for the child and a reward system when expectation are met. (Sadock et al., 2014). These expectations are what eventually develop into discipline and thus a child can be more productive and eventually lead an almost normal life (Sadock et al., 2014).

¡References

¡Albrecht, B., Uebel-von Sandersleben, H., Gevensleben, H., & Rothenberger, A. (2015). Pathophysiology of ADHD and associated problems-starting points for NF interventions?. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 9, 359. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00359

¡American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

¡Barbaresi, W. J. (2016). Improving care for children with ADHD: The information is just rating scale away. Pediatrics Volume 137, number 3. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/137/3/1.

¡Braaten, E. (2017). 5 Things parents and teachers need to know about ADHD. Harvard Health Publishing. Retrieved from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/5-things-parents-and-teachers-need-to-know-about-adhd-2017102712643.

¡CDC. (2018). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Recommendation retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/guidelines.html

¡Curchack-Lichtin, J. T., Chacko, A., & Halperin, J. M. (2014). Changes in ADHD symptom endorsement: preschool to school age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(6), 993-1004. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9834-9

¡

¡References

¡French, W. P. (2015). Assessment and treatment of attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder: Part 2. Pediatric Annals, 44(4), 160-168. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00904481-20150410-.

¡Frye, D. (2017, January 13). Malfunctioning part of ‘ADHD gene’ identified, clearing way for specialized medications. Retrieved December 13, 2018, from https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/01/13/malfunctioning-part-of-adhd-gene-identified-clearing-way-for-specialized-medications

¡Hassan, S. (2017). ADHD. Kids Health. Retrieved from: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/adhd.html.

¡Healthline Editorial Team. (2017). ADHD Treatment Options. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/treatment-overview.

¡Jara, S. (n.d.).  ADHD Myths you still get wrong. Readers Digest. Retrieved from: https://www.rd.com/health/conditions/adhd-myths/

¡Javanbakhht, A. (2018). What it means to have ADD or ADHD. Daily Nexus. Retrieved from: http://dailynexus.com/2016-05-18/what-it-means-to-have-add-or-adhd/

¡

¡References

¡National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. (2016). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

¡Marques, B. (2014). Recognizing the symtpoms of ADHD. K5 Learning. Retrieved from: https://www.k5learning.com/blog/recognizing-symptoms-adhd.

¡MayoClinic. (2017, August 15). Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Retrieved December 13, 2018, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/adult-adhd/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350883.

¡MedlinePlus. (2014). Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine. Retrieved December 13, 2018, from https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/spring14/articles/spring14pg15-16.htm

¡Retrieved from, https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml

¡Parekh, R. (2017). What is ADHD? American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from: https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/adhd/what-is-adhd

¡

¡References

¡Rhode, L.A., Kieling, C., & Salum, G.A. (2018). Current diagnostic criteria DSM, ICD, and future perspectives. Chapter 14. Retrieved from: www.books.google.com.

¡Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

¡Spencer, L. (2018). Practice standards for initial ADHD assessment: A review. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=theses

 

Week 3: Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, ODD, and ICD

“I can’t believe I am sitting here talking to this lady. Mom thinks I am nuts just because I will not do what she asks. She does not care about me. She only cares about my little brother and that man that keeps coming around. I don’t care anything about her. That is why I throw things and won’t do what she asks. I don’t care about anyone. Those kids at school who used to be my friends don’t know anything. I am so much smarter than they are.

Jacob, age 11”

There are many mental disorders that occur early in the life course. The DSM-5 describes neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and ADHD and disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. These disorders are examined together with a particular emphasis on comparing and contrasting presenting features. Diagnosis of these various conditions can rarely be made in a single office setting and often require a comprehensive approach involving multiple stakeholders, including the child, as well as his or her parents, teachers, and other significant figures in the child’s life and mental health professionals, such as psychologists who can conduct comprehensive neuropsychological testing.

The PMHNP must coordinate and integrate several sources of information to arrive at an accurate diagnosis of these disorders. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential to developing an effective treatment plan, which will have the potential to minimize the impact of these disorders on the child’s developmental trajectory. When one considers appropriate diagnosis from this perspective, the importance of diagnostic accuracy becomes quite apparent.

This week, you begin exploring disorders that occur early in the life course by working with your group to develop a Parent Guide. You also examine a case to determine a differential diagnosis and treatment plan that incorporates both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology.

Photo Credit: Cultura/Seb Oliver / Cultura / Getty Images

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

American Nurses Association. (2014). Psychiatric-mental health nursing: Scope and standards of practice (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Standard 5E “Pharmacological, Biological and Integrative Therapies” (page 59)

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Chapter 3, “Contributions of the Sociocultural Sciences” (pp. 131–150)
Chapter 31, “Child Psychiatry” (pp. 1152–1181, 1244–1253)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

“Neurodevelopmental Disorders”
“Intellectual Disabilities”
“Communication Disorders”
“Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders”

Note: You will access this book from the Walden Library databases.

Volkmar, F., Siegel, M., Woodbury-Smith, M., King, B., McCracken, J., & State, M. (2014). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(2), 237–257. Retrieved from http://www.jaacap.com/article/S0890-8567(13)00819-8/pdf

Stahl, S. M. (2014). Prescriber’s Guide: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using the link. This link will take you to a login page for the Walden Library. Once you log in to the library, the Stahl website will appear.

 

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th Ed. tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

Irritability in autism Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
aripiprazole
risperidone armodafinil
amphetamine (d)
amphetamine (d,l)
atomoxetine
bupropion
chlorpromazine (hyperactivity)
clonidine
guanfacine
haloperidol (hyperactivity)
lisdexamfetamine
methylphenidate (d)
methylphenidate (d,l)
modafinil
reboxetine

Note: Many of these medications are FDA approved for adults only. Some are FDA approved for disorders in children and adolescents. Many are used “off label” for the disorders examined in this week. As you read the Stahl drug monographs, focus your attention on FDA approvals for children/adolescents (including “ages” for which the medication is approved, if applicable) and further note which drugs are “off label.”

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2017b). A young girl with difficulties in school [Multimedia file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Optional Resources

Thapar, A., Pine, D. S., Leckman, J. F., Scott, S., Snowling, M. J., & Taylor, E. A. (2015). Rutter’s child and adolescent psychiatry (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell.

Chapter 51, “Autism Spectrum Disorder” (pp. 665–682)
Discussion: Parent Guide

Note: You and your group will use the wiki function to develop three Parent Guides (one in Week 3, one in Week 7, and one in Week 10). A wiki is a site that allows collaborative editing by all users. Each group will have its own place to communicate and collaborate on the assignments. Once your group has completed each assignment, one member should transfer the information to its final format and submit it through the group submission link in the Discussion. Do not delete the assignment from the wiki format, as your Instructor will review this area to determine each member’s participation.

Collaboration is essential to accurate diagnosis of the conditions under consideration in this week. For this week’s Discussion, you practice collaboration by working in a group on developing a “Parent Guide,” which will serve as a teaching tool for parents with children who have been diagnosed with a specific mental health disorder.

It is recommended that you make your project as attractive as possible and consider using the finished product as teaching tools for families that you will work with in your own practices.

Learning Objectives
Students will:
Analyze signs and symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders
Analyze the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders
Analyze diagnosis and treatment methods for neurodevelopmental disorders
Evaluate Parent Guides

To Prepare for this Discussion:

Your Instructor will assign you to a group and a disorder by Day 1 of Week 2.
Review the resources concerning your assigned disorder.
Review the Blackboard Help website concerning wikis.
Use your group’s Discussion Board to design and develop the Parent Guide before posting to the group wiki. For further guidance, refer to the Accessing Group Discussions instructions below.

Using evidence-based research, design and develop a Parent Guide for your assigned disorder including:

Signs and symptoms
Pathophysiology
How the disorder is diagnosed
Treatment options

Provide a minimum of three academic references.

By Day 5

One designated group member should post the completed Parent Guide to the Discussion.

By Day 7

Respond to at least two other groups’ wikis by providing at least two contributions for improving or including in their Parent Guide and at least two things that you like about their guide.

Submission and Grading Information
Accessing Group Discussions and Wikis

To access your group’s discussion, click on the Parent Guide Groups link. Once you have clicked on the link, select your assigned team (e.g., Team A, Team B, Team C, etc.) to access your team’s home page. Select Group Discussion Board under the Group Tools menu to work on your participate in your group’s discussion.

To access your group’s wiki, click on the Parent Guide Groups link. Once you have clicked on the link, select your assigned team (e.g., Team A, Team B, Team C, etc.) to access your team’s home page.

Creating a Wiki Page

Create the first wiki topic page by entering the group’s wiki area and selecting Create Wiki Page. Use the group’s assigned disorder as the name of your wiki. Then add your Parent Guide in the Content text box. You can use the editor functions to format the text and include files, images, web links, multimedia, and mashups. Select Submit when you have completed the wiki page.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 3 Parent Guide Discussion Rubric

To access your group discussion / wiki:

Parent Guide Groups

Post to Discussion by Day 5 and Respond by Day 7

To participate in this Discussion:

Parent Guide Groups – Week 3

Assignment 1: Practicum: Decision Tree

For this Assignment, you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how you might assess and treat pediatric clients presenting with symptoms noted in the case.

Note: This Assignment is the first of three assignments that are based on interactive client case studies. For these assignments, you will be required to make decisions about how to assess and treat clients. Each of your decisions will have a consequence. Some consequences will be insignificant, and others may be life altering. You are not expected to make the “right” decision every time; in fact, some scenarios may not have a “right” decision. You are, however, expected to learn from each decision you make and demonstrate the ability to weigh risks versus benefits to prescribe appropriate treatments for clients.

Learning Objectives
Students will:
Evaluate clients for treatment of mental health disorders
Analyze decisions made throughout diagnosis and treatment of clients with mental health disorders

The Assignment:

Examine Case 1. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and treatment for this client. Be sure to consider co-morbid physical as well as mental factors that might impact the client’s diagnosis and treatment.

At each Decision Point, stop to complete the following:

Decision #1: Differential Diagnosis
Which Decision did you select?
Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the Decision. Why were they different?
Decision #2: Treatment Plan for Psychotherapy
Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the Decision. Why were they different?
Decision #3: Treatment Plan for Psychopharmacology
Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients and their families.

Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of three academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement.

By Day 7 of Week 4

Submit your Assignment.

Assignment 2: Board Vitals

This week you will be responding to twenty Board Vitals questions that cover a broad review of your Nurse Practitioner program courses up to this point.

These review questions will provide practice that is critical in your preparation for the national certification exam that’s required to certify you to practice as a nurse practitioner. These customized test questions are designed to help you prepare for your Nurse Practitioner certification exam. It is in your best interest to take your time, do your best, and answer each question to the best of your ability.

You can access Board Vitals through the link sent to you in email or by following the link below:

https://www.boardvitals.com/

By Day 7

Complete the Board Vitals questions.

Making Connections

This week, you began exploring disorders that occur early in the life course by working with your group to develop a Parent Guide. You also examined a case to determine a differential diagnosis and treatment plan, which incorporates both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology.

Next week, you examine several cases of child abuse and neglect and recommend strategies for assessing for abuse. You analyze influences of media and social media on mental health and evaluate the need for mandatory reporting of abuse. You also submit your Practicum Journal and Assignments.

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