Globalization Its Impact On Ebola

Globalization Its Impact On Ebola

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Globalization Its Impact On Ebola

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Globalization Its Impact On Ebola

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Question:
Discuss about the Globalization its Impact on Ebola.
 
 
Answer:

Source and Transmission of Ebola
Ebola is one of the deadliest hemorrhagic fevers (World Health Organization, 2014). It is a viral disease caused by genus Ebolavirus (Team, 2014). It originated from wild animals and transmitted to humans. The fruit bats Pteropodidae family is believed to be the original Ebola virus hosts. Later on, it was passed to humans through blood, secretions and other biological fluids of plagued animals including the original host (fruit bats) and other secondary hosts such as gorillas, monkeys, and chimpanzees, among others (Chan, 2014).
The virus easily transmits via human-to-human contact. Transmissibility is higher when the integrity of the skin and the mucous membranes are compromised (Dixon & Schafer, 2014). For example, when the skin is broken or injured, it makes it easier for the blood and other bodily secretions from a sick person to gain entry into the body system of a new human host. Materials such as utensils, food, fluids, and garments (clothes and beddings) used by an infected person also pose a danger for possible transmission (World Health Organization, 2014). Health care personnel tending to the needs of Ebola patients have been recurrently infected while giving medical services to patients (Dixon & Schafer, 2014). This mainly occurs when the health care staffs get close to the patients or the patients’ biofluids or materials such beddings. The transmission has also been reported in burial services where the bereaved and other mourners come in contact with persons who died of Ebola (World Health Organization, 2014).
Lack of Ebola Vaccine
The efforts of CDC, WHO, and various other organizations have seen vaccines being developed for various diseases. However, despite the tremendous amount of resources dedicated, the vaccine for Ebola virus is yet to be discovered. This has made the fight against the Ebola virus quite a daunting task. Various reasons have been cited to have impeded the frantic search for the Ebola vaccine, and they are as discussed herein.
To start with, vaccines’ trials have been met with huge challenges. It is the recommendation of the CDC and the WHO that vaccines are safe before being introduced to humans (Widdowson, 2016). Traditionally, animal trials have been conducted, constantly monitored and if the benefits outweigh any minimal side effects shown, and then the vaccine or drug is recommended for humans. However, Ebola disease develops and transmits vastly with high mortalities warranting urgent interventions. This presents the challenge of using investigational vaccines to halt the transmission of the disease (World Health Organization, 2014). More often than not morality and saving human lives have taken the center stage in the fiercely debated forums with no tangible conclusions. Proponents argue for the use of exploratory vaccines to save lives while critics cite morality and human dignity and therefore do administration of investigational vaccines to persons living in Ebola endemic regions (Friend & Stone, 2015, October). Lack of frequent testing has slowed down the studies against the virus. Without being vaccinated, it is challenging for the health care personnel to dispense medical services to the sick without being infected themselves. Lack of proper care for the patients following fear among health care workers has been cited as one of the primary reasons for the higher mortalities reported (Ledgerwood et al., 2014).
Inadequate funding has also been cited as an impediment to the search for an Ebola vaccine. According to the WHO director (Margaret Chan), the pharmaceutical companies have done very little in financing research to combat Ebola disease through vaccinations. Although profiteering in business approach, the pharmaceutical companies ought to have dived into research just like in many other diseases. A search for a vaccine is an expensive undertaking requiring astronomical budgets which only multinationals in the pharmaceutical industry and wealthy governments are capable of financing. Equipping facilities with treatment kits in Western African has also been challenging just as it has been difficult to finance the purchase of drugs. For example, St John of God Hospital and other facilities located in the capital of Sierra Leone are not equipped with laboratories. The nearest laboratory is six hours away ride. This makes diagnosis and confirmation of Ebola quite difficult. Early diagnosis is instrumental to reporting and subsequent vaccine development. Timely reported cases provide grounds for urgent action to be taken in funding the fight against any disease (Widdowson, 2016).
Lastly, poor prioritization from the CDC, WHO, United Nations and the American government has been cast in bad light. The American government is very vocal in matters affecting their interests around the globe. However, it has not been very vocal on the Ebola issue. Critics have argued that if Ebola was endemic in the USA or near its borders, a vaccine could have been long found. As a matter of fact, the United Nations is recorded admitting to having not done enough in the fight against Ebola. The laxity among these bodies was the reason for minimal funding in the search for the Ebola vaccine (Reardon, 2014).
 
Public health management and prevention of Ebola for Hospitalized Patients
There are various measures that have been put in place to curb transmission of the Ebola virus in different contexts. In this assignment, we examine the public health management and prevention protocols put in place for Ebola control with a facility set up. It is important for the reader to remember that the strategies discussed, herein, are targeted at particular control measures for a certain period, and minor adjustments may be made depending on whether the patient is suffering from other conditions such tuberculosis. The protocols and guidance given here only applies to hospital contexts. In addition, the health care personnel needing protection refers to medical, paramedical and support staffs at the hospital (Dexter et al., 2001).
Placement of patients confirmed or suspected to be suffering from Ebola is a critical component of the public health management and prevention during hospitalized care. Every patient must be placed in his or her room with the door closed and only opened when necessary. The room must be equipped with basic amenities such as a toilet and bathroom to ensure there is no sharing (Dexter et al., 2001). The facility should be fitted with a reliable water and sewerage system to ensure high levels of hygiene and sanitation.
Hand hygiene is a requirement for all healthcare personnel working in the facility housing patients suffering from Ebola; it must be observed before and after making contact with patients, their blood and body fluids as well as their materials and refuse from rooms used by such patients. The recommendation of hand hygiene requires the health care staff to use soap and clean water running from a tap or making use of ethanol-based hand sanitizers. However, if the hands or any other body part is visibly soiled, one must use soap and water but not alcohol-based sanitizers. This is aimed at physically removing the Ebola virus from the skin. The alcohol-based sanitizers are chemical agents and generally act slowly and therefore, less effective in cutting the chain of transmission. In addition, such facilities should maintain a log of patients going in and out of the patient’s room to aid in tracking and monitoring them in case of accidental exposure. In the state of the earth facilities, health care staffs are equipped with special key cards with various levels of clearance, with the most restricted area only allowing authorized persons (Dexter et al., 2001).
Patient care equipment protocols include dedicating medical equipment to one patient. Where possible, it is recommended to use disposable equipment. However, some equipment may not be disposable after being used by one patient, for example, heavy machinery. In such a case, all non-disposable machinery must be cleaned and sterilized according to the manufacturer’s manual (Frieden et al., 2014).
Supporting patient care equipment protocol is the recommendation to limit the use of invasive treatment plans such as needles and other sharp objects. Procedures involving phlebotomy, blood and other bodily fluids must be limited to when only necessary, for example during diagnostic evaluation and service delivery (Dexter et al., 2001). All injection kitties including needles and parental medical equipment entering the patient’s room should be dedicated only to that patient and tracked till safe disposal. Needles and any other sharp objects used must be handled with extreme caution and disposed off in containers that cannot be punctured (Frieden et al., 2014).
 
References
Chan, M. (2014). Ebola virus disease in West Africa—no early end to the outbreak. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(13), 1183-1185.
Dexter, P. R., Perkins, S., Overhage, J. M., Maharry, K., Kohler, R. B., & McDonald, C. J. (2001). A computerized reminder system to increase the use of preventive care for hospitalized patients. New England Journal of Medicine,345(13), 965-970.
Dixon, M. G., & Schafer, I. J. (2014). Ebola viral disease outbreak—West Africa, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 63(25), 548-51.
Frieden, T. R., Damon, I., Bell, B. P., Kenyon, T., & Nichol, S. (2014). Ebola 2014—new challenges, new global response and responsibility. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(13), 1177-1180.
Friend, M., & Stone, S. (2015, October). Challenging requirements in resource challenged environment on a time challenged schedule: A technical solution to support the cold chain for the VSV-Zebov (Merck) Ebola vaccine in Sierra Leone Guinea. In Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2015 IEEE (pp. 372-376). IEEE.
Ledgerwood, J. E., DeZure, A. D., Stanley, D. A., Novik, L., Enama, M. E., Berkowitz, N. M., … & Gordon, I. J. (2014). Chimpanzee adenovirus vector Ebola vaccine—preliminary report. New England Journal of Medicine.
Reardon, S. (2014). Ebola treatments caught in limbo: Logistics and lack of funds keep experimental drugs and vaccines from being used in Africa outbreak. Nature, 511(7511), 520-521.
The team, W. E. R. (2014). Ebola virus disease in West Africa—the first nine months of the epidemic and forward projections. N Engl J Med, 2014(371), 1481-1495.
Widdowson, M. A. (2016). Implementing an Ebola Vaccine Study—Sierra Leone. MMWR supplements, 65.
World Health Organization. (2014). Contact tracing during an outbreak of Ebola virus disease.
World Health Organization. (2014). Potential Ebola therapies and vaccines: interim guidance.           

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