Health Psychology : Biopsychosocial Interactions

Health Psychology : Biopsychosocial Interactions

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Health Psychology : Biopsychosocial Interactions

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Health Psychology : Biopsychosocial Interactions

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Question:
Discuss about the Health Psychology for Biopsychosocial Interactions.
 
 
Answer:

Introduction
The behavioral and psychological factors are closely associated with the wellbeing and health of an individual. According to Edlin & Golanty (2012), the impish link in between lifestyle, social factors and psychological wellness determines the constant transformation within an individual. This discourse will explain the basic concepts and cultural understanding of health and wellness. There are several contradictions related to the influence of the cultures in health beliefs, as every culture possesses suitable systems of various health beliefs and wellness, which clearly demonstrate the wellness of an individual. Sarafino & Smith (2014) have mentioned that the concept of global markets often vary with the concept of health, illness and wellness of an individual. This discourse will also discuss the importance of biopsychosocial factors for maintain the health and wellbeing of an individual. This essay will also elaborate the mutual dependency in between psychology and biology for promoting good health, wellbeing and prevent illness. This particular study will reflects health, wellness is more than the absence of diseases, and it requires more than medical treatment.
Discussion
A concept of wellness suggests a better stage than the physical health, nutrition or exercise. Wellness determines a full integration of the states of mental, spiritual wellbeing and physical health. The term of health and wellness has considered as an essential tool for the global marketers in several industries as the individuals constantly changes their existing habits in order to pursue a better and healthier lifestyle. As opined by Weiss & Lonnquist (2015), health and wellness of an individual are depended on the lifestyle and consuming nature and habit of foods. Although the existing definitions and concept of health and wellbeing are ranged from physical to the spiritual, therefore, it is noteworthy to mention here that the wellness and health help an individual to bake adequate decisions in order to improve the overall state of the health of an individual. The general components of pursuit of the health and wellness suggest the healthier food consumption, physical fitness and avoidance of any kind of potentially harmful behaviors of the individual. On the other hand, healthier food consumption can be considered, as an essential part of achieving good health as the belief regarding the health and wellness tend to hinge the capacity of food consumptions, which is directly concerned with the physical health. As opined by Hoeger & Hoeger (2016), the maintenance of sensible and healthier diet has become major aspect in the health and wellness psychology and philosophy. On the other hand, physical fitness denotes an active personality, who maintains healthy lifestyle by physical exercise. Avoidance of potentially harmful behaviors suggest avoiding any kind of unhealthy lifestyle such as avoiding smoking, consume healthy diet, daily exercise. Wellness theories focus on the expansion of the health triangle model of biopsychosocial factors involving the occupational health and spiritual health.
According to Parmelee (2014), the society and community believes that illness is an outcome of the supernatural phenomena for promoting prayers and existing spiritual interventions, which can be countered as presumed disfavor of the powerful forces. The cultural issues usually play essential role in patient compliance. The care service providers should have adequate knowledge regarding the cultural belief of health and wellness of an individual. Cultural understanding of health and wellness involves healthy aging, which includes many aspects of life rather than only getting old without any kid of disease. According to Miller (2014), the cultural understanding of health and wellness can be concerned and concentrated on various ways, which older adults can avoid for supporting and promoting the basic ability to prevent the illness. However, the concept and idea of healthy aging involves a highest possible level of the self-management of several chronic conditions. On the other hand, there are some contradictions regarding the healthy aging, which can be fitted into the understanding of the cultural diversity. Donatelle & Ketcham (2013) have suggested that healthcare sectors has started to recognize the essential role of understanding the responsibility of understanding the language, culture and ethnic requirements in order to grow the number of healthy older adults. Caltabiano & Sarafino (2008) have suggested that the healthcare disparities can be considered as mitigating any kind of potential issues within the experience of the ethnic groups, which possess different type cultural beliefs than the other across the world. Even some crucial contradictions regarding the cultural understanding of health and wellness includes the importance of cultural diversity in the wellness program as healthcare is solely based upon various concepts and beliefs of individuals. A general and standard type of system or template has been put into the places with an expectation, which as individual requires services that will find a process of adapting the actual system of their own existing beliefs or experiences. On the other hand, the basic of wellness has been revolved around a person-centered concentration (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2014). Such understanding and beliefs often helps an individual to determine best health decisions, changing behavior based on relevant information. It also improves the condition of health for preventing and decreasing the potential risk of decline.
Health is solely concerned with the traditionally equated without the existence of any kind of diseases. A drawback of the fundamental pathology clearly defines and determines the health of an individual, whereas the biological driven pathogens and critical conditions, which can render the poor health condition of an individual. However, a narrow possibility on the health limitation suggests the basic understanding of the health and wellbeing. DeSteno et al. (2013) have referred that biopsychosocial processes play an important role for health and wellness. The biopsychosocial processes can be viewed as a broad medium, which attributes various outcomes of diseases to the variable and intricate interaction of the biological factors, such as biochemical etc. On the other hand, biopsychosocial processes also help to understand the psychological factors, for instances, personality, mood, behavior and the social factors, such as familial, cultural, medical and socioeconomic. From various researches and studies, it has been clarified that biological, psychological and social factors fundamentally determine the health and wellness of the individual. According to McMahon & Fleury (2012), holistic health is concerned as biopsychosocial model, which posits psychological, biological and social factors.
 
The basic premise that all of these factors are layered with each other and interconnected has lead towards an outcome in a completely new way of looking health and illness and wellbeing. As biopsychosocial model is concerned as biomedical model, therefore the fundamental efficiency of this particular model can be employed to treat and diagnose intricate diseases. There are arguments related to this model as it hardly focuses on the psychological factor, which is considered as an essential factor of wellbeing in today’s modern and complex life. Girard et al. (2013) have referred that this dominant model of biomedical leaves no scope for psychological, behavioral and social dimensions of illness. On the other hand, biopsychosocial model provides a perfect opportunity for designing a better world of treatment of critical diseases in the modern health care system across the world. For instance, depression, a psychological condition can be treated with the effective employment of biopsychosocial model as it examines the relevant contribution of social, psychological and biological factors for mental diseases. Some of individuals suffering from depression may become immune to neurotransmitter malfunctions and other clinical medicines, this particular model may be proved helpful for them. Various researches on this particular model have clearly shown that the biologically depended personality characteristics possess a suitable kind of influencing aspects to overcome depressive symptoms from an individual’s life. There are also mentions of social stressors, which perform like triggers and are responsible for causing sudden transformation in the entire brain functioning that leads towards the depressive symptoms (Edlin & Golanty, 2012). The psychosocial factors, such as hostility, stress, hopeless stress, and risk and job control often contribute to the illness of an individual. Psychosocial hypothesis has proposed various psychosocial factors that are essential of health inequalities. Mental states, social environment and psychological traits that suggests negative connotation. The preceding remarks on plausibility notwithstanding, it is noteworthy to mention here that the psychosocial adversity may cause physical diseases, even it possess the capability of fostering unhealthy behavior, such as smoking, which can lead directly to the neuroendocrine perturbations, which influence the basic risk of diseases. Even psychosocial factors are linked with the paternal postnatal depression (Girard et al., 2013).
Conclusion
This discourse truly determines that health and wellness is more than the fundamental absence of disease. The social, psychological and biological factors are required for the state of health and wellness more than the medical treatment. Various factors of biopsychosocial processes and examples of it are elaborately discussed in this study for providing a view on the concerned topic. There are certain situations, which are neither approachable nor unfeasible. There is an essential incorporation of relationship in between the fundamental and contingent causes of psychosocial factors. Depression and stress are another example of psychosocial factors that may influence the risk of health. The social disadvantage is interconnected with the poor physical health and is heightened for expositing several psychosocial factors with the negative social connotation. Even the psychosocial hypothesis may hold certain exposure, which mediate the link in between physical health, psychological intervention and social disadvantage for improving the health of the disadvantaged.
 
References
Caltabiano, M. L., & Sarafino, E. P., & Byrne, D. (2008). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial
interactions (2nd Australian ed.). Milton, Qld.: John Wiley & Sons.
DeSteno, D., Gross, J. J., & Kubzansky, L. (2013). Affective science and health: The importance of emotion and emotion regulation. Health Psychology, 32(5), 474.
Donatelle, R. J., & Ketcham, P. (2013). Access to health. Pearson Higher Ed.
Edlin, G., & Golanty, E. (2012). Health and wellness. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Girard, M. E., Lacharité, C., Dubeau, D., & Devault, A. (2013). Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. Journal of affective disorders, 150(1), 44-49.
Hoeger, W. W., & Hoeger, S. A. (2016). Lifetime physical fitness and wellness: A personalized program. Cengage Learning.
McMahon, S., & Fleury, J. (2012, January). Wellness in older adults: A concept analysis. In Nursing forum (Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 39-51). Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Miller, J. W. (2014). Wellness: The history and development of a concept.
Parmelee Jr, A. H. (2014). and Disease Concepts. Emotion, Cognition, Health, and Development in Children and Adolescents (PLE: Emotion), 10, 155.
Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2014). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. John Wiley & Sons.
Tulchinsky, T. H., & Varavikova, E. A. (2014). The new public health. Academic Press.
Weiss, G. L., & Lonnquist, L. E. (2015). Sociology of health, healing, and illness. Routledge.

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