Idea About Health- Disease And Illness

Idea About Health- Disease And Illness

Free Samples

Idea About Health, Disease And Illness

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

Idea About Health, Disease And Illness

0 Download9 Pages / 2,158 Words

Explain the definitions of health and critically evaluate ways in which the midical profession exercise social control with reference to the sick role the doctor/patient relationship and how the medical profession contribute to ill health.

It is very important to have a clear idea about health, disease and illness for those who associated with the healthcare field. The lay definition of health vary and factors like culture, gender, age and social class are variables that impact the insights of health. The concept of sick role shaped by an American sociologist Talcott Parsons in 1951, plays a vital role between the patient behavior and care givers.  Medical profession experiences many social influences and the ways in which medical profession exercises social control is a matter of concern. There are my sociological approaches that affects doctor and patient relationship. The fundamental principles of biomedical model and social model provides two different frameworks of healthcare system. Not only the social determinants affects medical profession but also political economy has a great influences on this sector. Health becomes a political and ethical issue. There are many vital theories and models that have changed people’s perspective towards health industry and also helped to evaluate medical profession’s contribution of ill health.
Health, disease and the sick role
Health is a condition of entire physical, mental and social comfort and not just the non-appearance of illness or disability. Health is soundness of body which can be disrupted by any physiological, psychological or biochemical deviance. Disease is a specific anomalous state, a malady of a function or structure that distresses body and mind. The study of disease is known as pathology. Disease is often interpreted as a medical situation associated with particular signs and symptoms (Lupton 2012). The sick role is the set of rights and responsibilities that surround sickness and shape the behaviour of physicians and patients (Frank 2013). According to Bowling (2014), social and biomedical models also help doctors to improve the practise of patient care. The biomedical model of health emphases on the biological or physical aspects of illness and disease. This model is associated with diagnosis, treatment, cure and practiced by healthcare professionals. The social model of health is conceptual structure within which developments in wellbeing and safety are attained by aiming efforts towards the social, economic and environmental factors of health. These models can be better understood by the research findings of Mildred Blaxter. She investigated fluctuating explanations of health-describing it as ubiquity, normativity, functionality, biomedical and social.  Her work demonstrates the essence of association between organization and structure which culminates in the elevation of individuals’ self-advocacy in matters of wellbeing. Blaxter used ill health and the stigma of mental illness as examples of reactions for identification of nonconformity in health. Her discussions focus on the structures that influence health outcomes for individuals, causes and extent of social, environmental and structural inequalities of health. Blaxter continues to view health as a social and political subject and shows the relationship and complex interplay between gender, social class, ethnicity, age and experience. She highlighted the area of biomedicines, novel technologies and new ways to understand the human physiology (Jutel 2015).
The doctor-patient relationship
The doctor-patient relationship is fundamental to the healthcare practice and is vital for the supply of superior quality of healthcare for improved diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The healthier the relationship in terms of mutual respect, trust, familiarity, communal values and perceptions about life and disease, the better will be the volume and quality of information about the patient’s sickness, improving correctness of diagnosis and growing the patient’s understanding about the disease (Purtilo et al. 2014). According to the functionalism approach, improved health and advanced medical care are needed for the even running of society. As stated by Cockerham (2014), patients should accomplish the sick role in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be freed from their standard obligations. The patient-doctor relationship is hierarchical: The doctors delivers guidelines and the patients need to maintain them. Marxism construed the doctor-patient relationship within the milieu of capitalism. In the Marxist analysis, the doctor-patient relationship is accustomed by the “medical-industrial complex”, profit-maximization drives the improvement of technologies and drugs and compels physician’s decision-making. This approach can create conflict between patient-doctor relationships. Parallel to, and often incorporated in the Marxist approach, has been the developing feminist literature on medicine. Feminists have concentrated on the patriarchal nature of the male doctor-female patient relationship, recording the account of medical science that has depicted females as congenitally fragile. Female practitioners tend to take poorly rewarded primary care arenas over the more profitable, male-oriented surgical specialties, are more likely to be working as divergent to in private practice, and are less likely to be in loci of authority. Women physicians are also better communicators. Thus, the feminism approach may have a positive effect on doctor-patient relationship (Jackson and Neely 2015).
In connection to healthiness, sociological approach would draw upon quantifiable data resulting from community surveys, epidemiological investigations and relative studies in order to point out the influence of sociological structures and procedures in determining health outcomes for social groups. One sociological approach is the symbolic interactionist approach highlights that health and illness are social constructions. This proposes that several physical and psychological disorders have minute or no objective certainty but instead are deliberated healthy or diseased state only if they are described as such by a community and its people. This approach has also delivered significant studies of the interface between patients and health-care specialists. Critics said that this approach neglects the consequences of social inequality for health and sickness. In spite of these probable faults, the symbolic interactionist approach reminds people that health and illness do have a subjective as well as an objective reality (Cockerham 2014).
Ways in which medical profession exercises social control
It is believed that the physicians are the agents of social control in relation to the patient. The sick role includes a suspension of performance potentials allied with an individual’s routine social life such as potentials of working productively, caring for family or attending the meeting of a community association. It becomes the physician’s responsibility to provide guidance and treatment to return patient’s health and facilitate them to achieve expectations of everyday life. Therefore, the doctor becomes an agent of social control (Tuckett 2013). Many author claimed that the means by which the diseases are defined and labelled is a form of social control. Problems of the patients are individualized instead of being seen as societal in origin and failure to adapt to social standards may lead to a label of being sick or diseased (Tuckett 2013 and Cockerham 2014).
Ivan Illich subjected modern medical science to detailed attack. He discussed that the medicalisation in recent decades frequently caused more harm than good and affected many people as lifelong patients. He introduced people with the concept of iatrogenic diseases (Goldenberg 2013). The theories of Illich is a step backword in nature. His arguments are on a high, abstract level and when brought down to reality of practical patient care, they turn into obscure and meaningless thoughts. Some of his points are coming into focus more and more, that there is basically not adequate money to make technological medicine viable for all. Thus, concern must be grown and physician must lead the way (Davis 2012). The public must be fully informed and the medical profession must select what people need from medicine and how much they are prepared to pay for it. An active health education program is essential and the public must accept, focus on modifying life-style and habits to escape serious diseases (Goldenberg 2013).
Medical profession’s contribution of ill health
The role of health providers is diverse with the changing environment of care giving (primary, secondary and tertiary care) and a range of subspecialties. Healthcare professionals evaluate, diagnose, and treat the physical problems and behavioral dysfunctions resulting from physical and mental distress (Peabody 2015). In addition, they perform a critical part in the advancement of health status, preventing diseases and improving quality of life of patients. Healthcare professionals perform their clinical roles according to demanding ethical values and code of conduct (Macdonald 2013).
The term iatrogenesis is known as doctor-made diseases and can be categorised into three major types:

Clinical Iatrogenesis: It comprises all medical conditions for which hospitals, physicians and treatments are the pathogenic or sickening agents. It is known as overabundance of therapeutic side effects (Davies 2012, Hinze and Taylor 2016).
Social Iatrogenesis: Medical practice promotes sickness by emphasising a morbid civilization that not only industrially conserves its defectives but also exponentially breeds demand for the patient role. This type of iatrogenesis finds its manifestation in countless symptoms of social over medicalisation (Davies 2012 and Goldenberg 2013).
Structural Iatrogenesis: It is the eventual reaction of hygienic development and involve the paralysis of healthy reactions to suffering. It assaults when public receive health management planned on the technological model, when they collaborate in an effort to create superior health which certainly consequences in heteronomous conservation of life on high intensities of sub-lethal level (Davies 2012, Hinze and Taylor 2016).

Political economy of the health industry
The most important part of health care industry is to maintain the political economy. Mooney (2012) stated that healthcare offers a typical model of political economy because it lies at the heart of the evolution of capitalism. The political economy of health is a body of analysis and a standpoint on health policies which explores to recognise the environments which form population wellbeing and development of health services within the broader political and macro-economic background. Though, the relations between economic growth and healthcare advancement are complex and can be evaluated in terms of diverse linkages such as economic development increases the resources for healthcare, improves living environments and enhanced health amenities.
Marxian theory accounts from a specific social theory conjoining health industry with conceptions such as class, ideology, commodification and objectification to show the exploitation  and inequalities of  healthcare industry  in  capitalist  society,  and  the  ability  of  medicine  to  harness  the newly shaped complications to construct new markets and gain profit from human sufferings (Collyer 2015). Commodification (Marx’s political theory) is used to define the practice by which something which does not have an economic importance is assigned a value and hence how market values can swap other social standards. Furthermore, with commodification, health becomes a product to be sold and brought. It often becomes a commodity. Interactions between health authorities and patients are purchased on the market and new requirements are constantly formed in chase of profit. According to Marx, the health care is not commodity and making it as such can be deleterious to the ethics of patients care. Health care industry is holistic approach towards human good and moral societies should have a responsibility to protect it from the market ethos.
The contribution of medical profession to ill health is enormous. Health care professionals devote themselves for patient care and improvement of the healthcare industry. It is very vital to evaluate the importance of sick role, doctor-patient relationships, medical social controls and political economy of health industry. The medical social theories provide help to understand the complications of health industry and ways to overcome them. A clear viewpoint of medical professionals towards these issues can enhance the holistic approach of healthcare.
Bowling, A., 2014. Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Cockerham, W.C., 2014. Medical sociology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Collyer, F., 2015. Karl Marx and Frederich Engels: Capitalism, Health and the Healthcare Industry. In The Palgrave Handbook of Social Theory in Health, Illness and Medicine (pp. 35-58). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Davies, R., 2012. Ivan Illich on medical nemesis. Nurse education today,32(1), pp.5-6.
Frank, A.W., 2013. From sick role to practices of health and illness. Medical education, 47(1), pp.18-25.
Goldenberg, S., 2013. Discovering medical nemesis. Journal of Continuing Education Topics & Issues, 15(1), pp.10-13.
Hinze, S.W. and Taylor, H.L., 2016. medIcal socIology. Institutions Unbound: Social Worlds and Human Rights, p.9.
Jackson, P. and Neely, A.H., 2015. Triangulating health Toward a practice of a political ecology of health. Progress in Human Geography, 39(1), pp.47-64.
Jutel, A., 2015. Beyond the sociology of diagnosis. Sociology Compass,9(9), pp.841-852.
Lupton, D., 2012. Medicine as culture: Illness, disease and the body. Sage.
Macdonald, J.J., 2013. Primary health care: Medicine in its place. Routledge.
Mooney, G., 2012. The health of nations: Towards a new political economy. Zed Books.
Peabody, F.W., 2015. The care of the patient. Jama, 313(18), pp.1868-1868
Purtilo, R.B., Haddad, A.M. and Doherty, R.F., 2014. Health professional and patient interaction. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Tuckett, D., 2013. An introduction to medical sociology. Routledge.

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 9 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2017). Idea About Health, Disease And Illness. Retrieved from

“Idea About Health, Disease And Illness.” My Assignment Help, 2017,

My Assignment Help (2017) Idea About Health, Disease And Illness [Online]. Available from:[Accessed 18 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘Idea About Health, Disease And Illness’ (My Assignment Help, 2017) accessed 18 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. Idea About Health, Disease And Illness [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2017 [cited 18 December 2021]. Available from:

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.



For years now, is providing affordable essay help to millions of students worldwide. Our essay assistance services have helped us in assisting students with even the toughest essay assignments. We take pride in the fact that we cater the best assistance to search terms like help me with my essay. We offer affordable services in the fastest way possible. For our fast delivering services, students trust us with their urgent essay assignment needs. Two of our most popular essay writing services are maths essay help and English essay help.

Latest Healthcare Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

5N1794 Safety And Health At Work
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: 5N1794
University: University College Cork is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Ireland

Assignment 1
Answer to question 1
I have conducted a survey at my workplace maned Lady’s Hospice and Care Services to observe the working environment. The aim of the survey is to find if it is a safe, healthy, secured and fulfilling place to work. A visual survey was conducted to locate and record the safety signs in the workplace. The objective of the survey is to observe and list different types of signs, location, their prom…
Australia Maple Ridge Management Introduction to film studies University of New South Wales Masters in Business Administration 

400837 Health And Socio Political Issues In Aged Care
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: 400837
University: Western Sydney University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Palliative care services are designed to improve the life of patient with progressive disease. People receiving palliative care have illness that has no prospect of cure.  As per the World Health Organisation, palliative care is a care given to patient suffering from life threatening illness to improve their quality of life by preventing and providing relief from sufferings by early recognition , assessment and trea…
Australia Minchinbury Management University of New South Wales 

PUBH6304 Global Health
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PUBH6304
University: The University Of Newcastle is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is the spectrum of medical conditions caused due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following which the patient suffers from a series medical complications due to suppression of the immune system of the body. With the progression of the disease, the patient is likely to suffer from a wide range of infections like tuberculosis and other opportu…
United States Newark Management University of New York Masters in Business Administration 

CON 321 Health Related Research
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: CON321
University: University Of Southern Maine is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Leadership in the hospital is the ability to influence the staff toward providing quality health care. Leadership involves influencing human behavior to create a positive working environment (Langlois, 2012). Good leadership enables healthy relationships among staffs in the hospital enhancing quality delivery of health care services. Leadership is responsible to building teams that have trust, respect, support and effecti…

BL9412 Public Health
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: BL9412
University: University Of The West Of England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

According to the researchers, it can be said that the management of the health care organizations has become a difficult task nowadays and the reason behind this is the occurrence of various issues in this sector (Hall et al., 2014). Therefore, the administrative employees of the organization should incorporate various revolutionized strategies for enriching the worth of care provided by the hospital to its clients and re…
Australia Ryde Management Information system strategy University of New South Wales (UNSW) Masters in Business Administration 


Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by WhatsApp Chat

× How can I help you?