Literature Review On Finite Element Analysis Of Pile Foundations

Literature Review On Finite Element Analysis Of Pile Foundations

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Literature Review On Finite Element Analysis Of Pile Foundations

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Literature Review On Finite Element Analysis Of Pile Foundations

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Question:
Discuss about the Literature Review on Finite Element Analysis of Pile Foundations.
 
Answer:

Introduction
Pile foundations are used as medium between unstable soil and solid ground in order to initiate construction of solid structures like building, pillar, etc. These pile foundations exhibit different behavior in different physical conditions and external factors. Hence, the pile foundation behavior has been a subject of research for a long time. Many researchers have tested and used different research techniques for understanding the nature and behavior of pile foundation according to different external characteristics. Different researchers used different external factors to analyze the change in the behavior of pile foundation with the change in the effect of external factors. Again, different researchers used different techniques and methods for the research purposes that have given different and nearly accurate results on the behavior of pile foundations. In this assignment, the works of different researchers have been analyzed and the results have been discussed.
Literature Review
Gerolymos et al. (2014, pp.18-20) used beam on Winkler foundation model (BWF) for the analysis of pile foundations against static and dynamic loading. They mainly based their research on the soil behaviour against deflecting pile. They also analysed soil and interface non-linearities (slippage and separation of the pile from the soil), frequency-dependent visco-plastic response (radiation damping) and cyclic hysteretic soil behaviour during a dynamic pile-soil interaction.
The main question of their research was “How the frequency-dependent nonlinear characteristics of the sub grade reaction for laterally and axially loaded piles can be realistically captured through topologically appropriate assemblies of spring and dashpots with frequency independent parameters?” In their research paper, they published a soil reaction model in which they used non-linear frequency-independent springs and dashpots in a series-parallel arrangement. Their model is suitable for the sample pile subjected to horizontal or axial load. They used some equations and parameters for designing a soil reaction model. After the soil modeling, they conducted their experiment by using different configurations like Axial Loading and Lateral Loading used different techniques and verified the obtained results. Their research results contained the following factors that they found to be realistically capturable with the help of a simple lumped parameter model.

Relation with frequency
Non-linearity of material and interface

Radiation-hysteresis coupling

Their lumped parameter model consisted of a set of “appropriately arranged frequency independent springs masses and dashpots”.
Li, Guan & Zhang (2016, pp.177-193) analysed the pile foundation behaviour due to the effect of ocean waves by using the transient dynamic analysis with scaled boundary finite element method. In this process, they chose the semi-analytic numerical method (scaled boundary finite element method) for investigating pile foundation time-dependant behaviour under ocean wave loads. They also used Wave-Structure Interaction (WSI) framework for their research. To address the problems of WSI framework, they took the help of three-dimensional SBFEM model.
They mainly emphasized on mathematical calculations rather than collecting samples and practical experiments. They used scientific formulae and calculations to find the results and hence, their results had some errors that can only be removed by verifying with the practical and experimental results. Hence, this method was called semi-analytic method. They first analysed the problems and summarized them using formulations. After that, they analysed wave behaviour and structural response for calculating approximate numerical values for the pile behaviour. For their research, they used SBFEM model in order to address the magnitude of interaction between waves and structures. They also executed model validation process with the help of softwares and produced a number of graphical representations of different equations. They also made a graphical comparison between FEM and SBFEM and published the results that were to some extent inaccurate with respect to practical values.
Brinkgreve (2014) made a more realistic and simple approach by using software 3D modelling techniques. He recreated some software generated replicas of different building foundations and other structures. He applied mathematical calculations and models in these models to analyse the behaviour of the pile foundations. He also used different sample case studies in order to analyse different types of behaviour of pile foundations from different external agents.
The simplicity of Brinkgreve’s (2014) approach made it possible for a more precise analysis of pile foundation behaviour. His technique is suitable for analysing pile behaviour of some foundations that cannot be analysed in situ. However, the main problem with this approach is that it requires high technical support. Moreover, the software costs are also extremely high. Finally, accurate practical results are also not obtainable with this technique.
Kato et al. (2014) conducted another study regarding this subject but based on a single case study. They analysed pile foundation behaviour that was affected by liquefaction and lateral spreading with pinning effect that occurred during the 2010 Maule Chile Earthquake. Their main objective of study was the analysis of the soil behavior and change in stability and performances due to high powered impact such as earthquake. In this particular research, they analyzed a number of mini case studies i.e. they analyzed different structures that were affected by the earthquake. Their analysis resulted in the following conclusions.
The laterally loaded pile behavior is actively affected by the 3D geometry used for its construction. Two approaches, namely, 3D FEM and LPile, can be used to determine the lateral displacement of the foundations and this resulted in deviation between 5 to 25 cm.
Slope displacements can actively affect pile foundation behavior but are frequently ignored, as the effects are not clearly visible.
As evident from most of the cases, pinning effect acts as a barrier for analyzing pile behavior as its effect appears even before maximum restriction force of the pile is achieved.
Ninić, Stascheit & Meschke’s (2014, pp.1453-1476) research was based “Embedded beam formulation for discretization independent finite element analyses of interactions between pile foundations or rock anchors and the surrounding soil” i.e. they mainly based their research on the formulation of embedded beam after analyzing the behavior of the pile foundation and soil interaction. Instead of modeling and formulations, they considered a simple beam structure that was to be erected on the soil after the analysis of pile foundation behavior. For this purpose, they considered arbitrary number of pile foundations and analyzed them against an arbitrary number of pile foundation orientations. In this model, they represented beam elements as individual piles. The benefit of this approach was that they were able to use analyze and find results under different conditions and arrangements. They also used 3D reference model for calculating some important parameters. However, this provided inaccurate results and errors had to be detected and removed to obtain nearly accurate results.
 
Evaluation
Gerolymos et al. (2014, pp.18-20) observed that the pile periphery generated waves are completely absorbed by the used absorbents when 20% loading is used. When 120% ultimate static soil reaction is generated by the used processes, they found that the pile is not generating any waves. They found that this is caused by intense mobilization of the slippage and the energy gets dissipated by radiation.
Li, Guan & Zhang (2016, pp.177-193) has provided a more specific approach to the topic and has limited their research to ocean waves as external factors. From their research, the actual magnitude of the effect of ocean waves on the pile behaviour foundations can be known.
Brinkgreve’s (2014) approach has made it possible to study and analyse pile foundation behaviour using simple mathematical modelling techniques. His research provides graphical representations and model diagrams that can be used as bases for further research using mathematical formulations.
Kato et al. (2014) provides a specific approach towards the pile foundation behaviour against large magnitude impacts like earthquake. They used a specific case study for analysis and provided more accurate results along with the constraints related to the study of pile foundation behaviour in this type of case study.
Ninić, Stascheit & Meschke’s (2014, pp.1453-1476) approach included the use of embedded beam as an element required for the study of the pile foundation behavior. They made simplified approach that included different orientations of elements to consider different behaviors of the pile foundations against different external conditions.
Conclusions
From the report, several conclusions can be drawn regarding the “Finite Element Analysis of Pile Foundations”. As evident from the works on this topic, many researchers have tested and used different research techniques for understanding the nature and behavior of pile foundation according to different external characteristics. Different researchers used different external factors to analyze the change in the behavior of pile foundation with the change in the effect of external factors. Gerolymos and his fellow researchers used beam on Winkler foundation model (BWF) for the analysis of pile foundations against static and dynamic loading. They mainly based their research on the soil behaviour against deflecting pile. On the other hand, Li, Guan & Zhang analysed the pile foundation behaviour due to the effect of ocean waves by using the transient dynamic analysis with scaled boundary finite element method. In this process, they chose the semi-analytic numerical method (scaled boundary finite element method) for investigating pile foundation time-dependant behaviour under ocean wave loads. Again, Brinkgreve made a more realistic and simple approach by using software 3D modelling techniques. He recreated some software generated replicas of different building foundations and other structures. Kato and his team, on the other hand, conducted another study regarding this subject but based on a single case study. They analysed pile foundation behaviour that was affected by liquefaction and lateral spreading with pinning effect that occurred during the 2010 Maule Chile Earthquake. Ninić, Stascheit & Meschke followed another approach and based their research on the formulation of embedded beam after analyzing the behavior of the pile foundation and soil interaction. Instead of modeling and formulations, they considered a simple beam structure that was to be erected on the soil after the analysis of pile foundation behavior. All these different approaches provided different results and outcomes, but they can be used as benchmark values for the pile foundation behavior against different external factors. Hence, it can be said that, different approaches were made to find different results from the same case analysis but all these results can be accumulated together to find a regular set of values that can be used as future reference and standard behavioral characteristics of the pile foundation against different external factors.
 
References
Brinkgreve, R.B., 2014, April. Efficient modelling of pile foundations in the finite element method. In DFIMEC 2014, Dubai, UAE. AUD.
Gerolymos, N., Kassas, K., Bouzoni, E. & Brinkgreve, R., 2014, June. Dynamic analysis of piles subjected to axial and lateral loading with emphasis on soil and interface nonlinearities. In Proceedings of the 8th European conference on numerical methods in geotechnical engineering, Delft, The Netherlands, in CD Rom (pp. 18-20).
Kato, K., Gonzales, D., Ledezma, C. & Ashford, S., 2014, July. Analysis of pile foundations affected by liquefaction and lateral spreading with pinning effect during the 2010 maule chile earthquake. In Proceedings of the 10th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering; Anchorage, AK, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
Li, M., Guan, H. & Zhang, H., 2016. Transient dynamic analysis of pile foundation responses due to ocean waves using the scaled boundary finite element method. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy, 2(2), pp.177-193.
Ninić, J., Stascheit, J. & Meschke, G., 2014. Beam–solid contact formulation for finite element analysis of pile–soil interaction with arbitrary discretization. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 38(14), pp.1453-1476.
Bibliography
Byrne, B.W., McAdam, R., Burd, H., Houlsby, G., Martin, C., Zdravkovi, L., Taborda, D., Potts, D., Jardine, R. & Sideri, M., 2015. New design methods for large diameter piles under lateral loading for offshore wind applications. In 3rd International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics (ISFOG 2015), Oslo, Norway, June (pp. 10-12).
Chatterjee, K., Choudhury, D. & Poulos, H.G., 2015. Seismic analysis of laterally loaded pile under influence of vertical loading using finite element method. Computers and Geotechnics, 67, pp.172-186.
Das, B.M., 2015. Principles of foundation engineering. Cengage learning.
Gashti, E.H.N., Uotinen, V.M. & Kujala, K., 2014. Numerical modelling of thermal regimes in steel energy pile foundations: A case study. Energy and buildings, 69, pp.165-174.
Hamayoon, K., Morikawa, Y., Oka, R. & Zhang, F., 2016. 3D dynamic finite element analyses and 1g shaking table tests on seismic performance of existing group-pile foundation in partially improved grounds under dry condition. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 90, pp.196-210.
Jayasinghe, L.B., Thambiratnam, D.P., Perera, N. & Jayasooriya, J.H.A.R., 2013. Computer simulation of underground blast response of pile in saturated soil. Computers & Structures, 120, pp.86-95.
Keawsawasvong, S. & Ukritchon, B., 2016. Finite element analysis of undrained stability of cantilever flood walls. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, pp.1-13.
Laursen, T.A., 2013. Computational contact and impact mechanics: fundamentals of modeling interfacial phenomena in nonlinear finite element analysis. Springer Science & Business Media.
Luo, C., Yang, X., Zhan, C., Jin, X. & Ding, Z., 2016. Nonlinear 3D finite element analysis of soil–pile–structure interaction system subjected to horizontal earthquake excitation. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 84, pp.145-156.
Padrón, L.A., Suárez, A., Aznárez, J.J. & Maeso, O., 2015. Kinematic internal forces in deep foundations with inclined piles. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 44(12), pp.2129-2135.
Papadopoulou, K., Saroglou, H. & Papadopoulos, V., 2014. Finite Element Analyses and Experimental Investigation of Helical Micropiles. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 32(4), pp.949-963.
Rowe, R.K. & Liu, K.W., 2015. Three-dimensional finite element modelling of a full-scale geosynthetic-reinforced, pile-supported embankment.Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52(12), pp.2041-2054.
Wang, W., Regueiro, R.A. & McCartney, J.S., 2015. Coupled axisymmetric thermo-poro-mechanical finite element analysis of energy foundation centrifuge experiments in partially saturated silt. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 33(2), pp.373-388.
Yun, L., Cheng, W., Yingren, Z. & Zongxing, Z., 2013. Study on Strength Reduction FEM of Bearing Capacity Analysis on Composite Foundation with Underwater Sand Piles [J]. Chongqing Architecture, 2, p.010.
Zhao, B., Liu, Y., Goh, S.H. & Lee, F.H., 2016. Parallel finite element analysis of seismic soil structure interaction using a PC cluster. Computers and Geotechnics, 80, pp.167-177.

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